1. The War: Before 1914, belief that war was too __, while others believed that __ could control any situation and prevent outbreak.
    • risky/ costly,
    • rational diplomats
  2. I.                   1914-1915: Illusions and Stalemate

    a.      1914: enthusiastic Europeans
    •                                                               i.      Government propaganda successful in stirring up national antagonisms before the war
    • 1.      Now, August 1914, the urgent pleas of government for defense against aggressive was heard
    • a.      Middle class and students= enthusiastic
    • b.      Workers in the cities and peasants= not so much
  3. overall
    • a.      Domestic differences disregarded
    • b.      Socialists derided “imperialistic war” as a blow against the common interests that united the working classes of all countries
    • c.       Nationalism was more powerful than working-class solidarity in summer of 1914 as socialist parties dropped strikes and workers were ready to fight
  4. New Illusions
    •                                                               i.      People thought war would be over in weeks and assumed it’d be like American Civil War
    •                                                             ii.      Belief that war couldn’t be longer than a few months without destroying the nation’s economy
    • 1.      Assumed they’d be back by Christmas
  5. Attracted to war
    •                                                               i.      Many people attracted to war
    • 1.      Release from bourgeois existence and a glorious adventure
    • 2.      Redemption: millions would abandon petty preoccupations with material life, ridding nation of selfishness and sparking a national rebirth based on self-sacrifice, heroism, and nobility
  6. War in the West
    •                                                               i.      German hopes for quick end: gamble
    • 1.      Schlieffen Plan called for German army to go through Belgium into northern France with vast encircling movement that would sweep around Paris and surround most of the French army
    • a.      Plan suffered since it called for strong right flank for the encircling of Paris, but German military leaders, concerned about a Russian invasion in the east, moved forces from the right flank to strengthen the German army in the east
  7. August 4
    •                                                               i.      August 4: German troops crossed into Belgium with little resistance but burned and looted the area and people
    • 1.      Reached Marne River in September
    • a.      Unexpected counterattack by British and French forces under French commander General Joseph Joffre stopped Germans at the First Battle of the Marne
  8. First Battle of the Marne
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      German troops fell back, but French army couldn’t pursueà war was a stalemate since neither Germans nor French could dislodge the other from the trenches they dug for shelter
    • 1.      Two lines of trenches soon extended from the English Channel to the frontiers of Switzerland
    •                                                             ii.      Western Front was bogged down in trench warfare, which kept both sides in same positions for 4 years
  9. War in the East
    •                                                               i.      More mobile, but greater casualties
    •                                                             ii.      Beginning: Russian moved into eastern Germany and was defeated at the Battles of Tannenberg and Masurian Lakes
    • 1.      These battles established the military reputations of the commanding general, Paul von Hindenburg, and his chief of staff, General Erich Ludendorff
    • 2.      Russians no longer a threat to German territory
  10. Austria
    •                                                               i.      Austrians, Germany’s allies, had less luck
    • 1.      Defeated by Russians and Serbians and Italy broke alliance with Germans and Austrians and entered war on Allied side by attacking Austria, but Germany helped Austria out
  11. German-Austrian army
    • a.      German-Austrian army defeated and routed the Russian army in Galicia and pushed Russians back into own territory
    • b.      Russain casualties: 2.5 million
    • 2.      Due to success, Germans and Austrians, joined by Bulgarians, attacked and eliminated Serbia from the war
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