July 1, 1916: Brits and French attacked Germans near the __in France. __mowed them down as they walked through __. More than 21,000 soldiers dead in one day and one million after __ months. __, an English war correspondent, said the boys in the German trench were young and bodies were separate.
__was the defining event of the 20th. It devastated the prewar __, __, and __ order of Europe and prepared the way for the more terrible __. It’s called the __, which was disturbing because it came after the __, when Europeans were able to avoid conflicts. However, the __problem of 1912 and 1913, despite the belief of __synthesis as Europeans kept problems under control, made it no longer possible to lie about __. Instead of __, Europe was a nightmare. It killed the idea of __.
economic, social, and political
age of progress
The Road to WWI: __: heir to Austrian throne, __ was assassinated in _. This was not the decisive factor of the war as previous assassinations didn’t lead to war. There were also long-term forces.
June 28, 1914
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
a.1st half of 19th: liberals maintained that organization of European states along national linesà peaceful Europe based on “international fraternity”= WRONG
i.This led to competition and rivalries over colonial and commercial interests during the new imperialism
Two loose alliances
i.Also led to two loose alliances
1.Governments that did not participate were humiliated, while those that went to brink of war were praised
ii.1914: these alliances were important and supporting them was even more so
a.Diplomacy based on brinkmanship was frightening
i.Each nation-state regarded self as sovereign and driven by own self-interest and success, which contributed to war, especially since most statesmen considered war as way to preserve power of national states
Within each state
1.Within each state, there were circles of political and military leaders who thought war was inevitable and provided chance to achieve goals
a.Germany: people who wanted creation of German empire by taking parts of Russia, Belgium and France
b.France wanted regain of Alsace-Lorranine
c.Austria-Hungary wanted to prevent Serbia from expanding
d.Britain wanted to save world empire
e.Russia needed to maintain status and acted as protector of Serves