1. central nervous system
    includes brain,spinal cord and meninges aka CNS
  2. peripheral nervous system
    • aka PNS
    • includes cranial and spinal nerves
  3. defenses of the CNS and PNS
    • bony casings
    • cerebral spinal fluid-cushoins
    • blood brain barrier- difficult for organisms to get in
    • phagocytic functions- wbc eat
    • macrophages
  4. is ther normal biota in CNS or PNS
  5. meninigitis
    • inflammation of the meninges caused by baterica-most serious
    • virues
    • fungi
  6. how do you diagnose meningitis
    lumbar puncture for cerebral spinal fluid to test
  7. symptoms of meningitis
    • headache
    • painful or stiff neck
    • fever
    • increased WBC in the CSF
  8. bacteria's that cause mennigitis
    neissera meningitidis

    streptococcus pneumonia

    haemophilus influenza

    listeria monocytogenes
  9. neissera meningitidis
    • aka meningococcus
    • most serious form
    • enters via nasal route
  10. streptococcus pneumonia
    • aka pneumococcus
    • most frequent cause of community acquired meningitis
    • very severe
  11. haemophilus influenza
  12. listeria monocytogenes
    • mild in adults
    • contracted from contaminated dairy,meat, poultry or cantaloupe
  13. fungal causes of meningitis
    crytococcus neoformans

    coccidioides immitis
  14. crytococcus neoformans
    • more chronic
    • gradual onset of symptoms
    • common in aids community
    • can disseminate to the skin,bones and viscera
  15. coccidioides immitis
    • found in soil
    • causes system infections
  16. viral couses of meninigtis
    • caused by enterococcus aka herpes virus 90%
    • majority found in children
    • aka aseptic meningitis
    • no bacteria or fungi found in CSF
  17. neonatal meningitis
    • transmitted by mother to childeither utero or birth canal
    • caused by streptococcus agalactia
    •            or eschericha coli -severe causes brain damage
  18. meningoencephalitis
    • caused by naegleria fowler
    •  and         acanthamoeba
  19. naegleria fowler
    amoeba forced into nasal passageway fom swimmingf in infected water

    causes death in weeks
  20. acanthamoeba
    • enters broken skin through contaminated waters
    • chronic
  21. can any organism that cause meningitis cause encephalitis?
  22. acute encephalitis
    caused by viral infection

    symptoms include behavoir changes,confusions,decreased consciousness, seizers
  23. organisms that cause encephalitis
    • arbovirus
    • herpes simplex virus
    • jc virues
  24. arbovirues
    • borne by insects aka arthopod vectors)
    • most feed on the blood host
  25. herpes simplex viruse
    occurs in newborns by mothers with this disease
  26. jc viruse
    rare but seen in aids patients
  27. subacute encephalitis
    symptoms take longer to show

    caused by toxoplasma gondi-protozoan parasite

    severe if transmitted to fetus

    can be transferred by litter box

    cyst can be ingested  by contaminated meat

    seen in aids pts
  28. subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
    • aka sspe
    • occurs years after initial measels episode
    • caused by direct viral invasion of neural tissue
    • causes progressive neural tissue degeneration
  29. prions
    • proteinaceous infectious particles
    • cause 9 animal diseases
    • inherited and transmissble by ingestin of infected meat
    • passed by transplant or surgical instruments
    • possible by gecetic transmission
  30. prions are caused by
    spongiform encephalopathy

    sheep scrapie

    bovine spongiform encephalapthy
  31. spongiform encephalapathy
    neurological disorder
  32. sheep scrapie
    • neuro disoreder in sheep
    • caused by infected food fed to cows aka mad cow disease
  33. bovine spongiform encephalapathy
    • cj diease
    • can last years
    • progressive dementia and memory loss
  34. rabies
    • slow progressive zoonotic disease
    • characterised by fatal encephalitis
  35. average incubation time of rabies
    1-2 months
  36. prodromal phase of rabies
    • fever
    • nausea
    • vomiting
    • headache
    • fatigue
  37. treatment of rabies
    passive and active immunology
  38. furious rabies
    • periods of agitation
    • disorientation
    • siezures
    • twitching
    • spasms in the neck
    • pharyngeal muscles leads to hydrphobia
    • results in death unless vaccinated proior to symptoms
  39. dumb rabies
    • pt is paralyzed
    • disorientated and stuporous
    • results in death unless vaccinated prior to symptoms
Card Set
chapt 19