10. Refsum’s disease results from a buildup of _________ in nerve tissue.
11) Which of the following is not one of the ketone bodies?
Ketone bodies INCLUDE: Excess Acetyl CoA, Acetone, Acetoacetate and Beta-hydroxybutyrate.
12. Most eicosanoids are derived from either _________.
13) Glycerol from the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols is transported by the blood to the
14) The intermediates in fatty acid synthesis are linked through a ______ linkage to ACP.
15) Saturated fatty acids containing up to 16 carbon atoms are assembled in
16) Fatty acid synthesis begins with the carboxylation of acetyl CoA to form
17) All of the following are enzymatic activities found in fatty acid synthase except
18) Desaturation of fatty acids involves
Acyl-CoA molecules denatured in ER membrane in precense of NADH, uses ctochrome b5 reductase, cytocrom b5, and o2-dependent desaturases, desaturases in animals
19) Which of the following types of fatty acid oxidation produces a dicarboxylic
20) The conversion of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA is inhibited by
epinephrine and phosphorylation
21) The conversion of acyl-CoA to acylcarnitine is inhibited by
22) In conjugation reactions
Amol'cs solubility is increased by convertiting it into a derivative that contains a water soluble group and common examples include amides and esters
23) Depending on an animal’s metabolic needs, fatty acids may be converted to triacylglycerols, energy or
24) Membrane remodeling
Cells use phospholipases to alter the flexibility of membranes by adjusting the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids or to replace a damaged fatty acid. Fatty acid removal from a phospholipid is followed by a reacylation reaction catalyzed by an acyltransferase.
25) The conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine requires
26) The sulfatides are synthesized when galactocerebriose reacts with
27) __________ is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis.
HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR)
28) The conversion of squalene to cholesterol requires
NADPH and NADH
29) Cholesterol is a precursor of synthesis of important metabolites used to
form bile salt, bile salts, steroid hormones nascent lipoproteins.
30) Most bile acids are conjugated with
glycine or taurine.
31) Which of the following tissues cannot use fatty acids as a fuel?
Brain cells and RBC cannot use fatty acids as fuels.
32) Lipolysis is used to:
occurs during fasting, vigorous exercise and in response to stress
Mobilizes body's fat storage when energy reserves are low
Fatty acid binding proteins are responsible for transporting fatty acids into target organelles
Oxidation of the carbon farthest from the carbonyl group of a fatty acid is called
34) In the process of thiolytic cleavage the following occurs:
Thiolase catalyzes a C-alpha and C-beta cleavage
An acetyl-CoA molecule is realsed
Layroyl-CoA is produced
35) How many FADH2 molecules would be produced in the oxidation of palmitic acid?
36) The rate limiting step in fatty acid synthesis is
acetyl COA Carboxylation to form malonyl CoA
37) Which of the following lipids have signaling functions?
Steroid hormones and prostaglandins.
38) What form of oxidation is characteristic of branched chain fatty acids
39) The metabolism of fatty acids is regulated in the short term by allosteric modulators, covalent modification and
40) The most important mechanism for degrading and eliminating cholesterol is the synthesis of
bile acids in the ER of liver cells.
41) The absorption of triglycerides and other lipid nutrients and their distribution to body tissues is referred to as the
42) The pathway in which lipoproteins are transported from the liver to cells is referred to
43) Functions of lipids
Storage of energy
The triacylglycerol cycle is :
A mechanism that regulates the level of fatty acid that are available to the body for the energy generation and synthesis of molecules such as phospholipids.
45) The principal means of producing glycerol in the body
46) The recycling rate of triacylglycerols to fatty acids is inhibited by