MODGREEK 325 Challenge Images Set 2

  1. Image Upload 1
    • First extant photo of Parthenon, October 1839
    • Small mosque (used as a makeshift museum at the time) doesn't last much longer after this photo
    • Guard house present indicates that the Acropolis is already an excavation site - already a demarcated space (thanks to von Klenze's purification plan)
  2. Image Upload 2
    • Photo of Acropolis S. Slope as excavation site, 1865, with Frankish Tower and building debris mounded on s. slope
    • Decision to remove any materials that aren't from the classical era and reuse them as building materials for new buildings in the city
    • Again, recycle, reuse - modern Athens is LITERALLY built on its ancient past
  3. Image Upload 3
    • Parthenon 21st C restoration viewed from inside the temple (ca 2004)
    • Originally a rescue mission: cement/iron was literally breaking the Parthenon apart from the inside and the acid rain and pollution was degrading the marbles
    • Rescue led to restoration project
    • Original replacement columns were unfluted to tell the difference - fluted later because they looked ugly
    • Couldn't have happened without the help of the European Union
  4. Image Upload 4
    • Walhalla Temple (1816 commission by Ludwig I [Otto's dad], built 1842 by von Klenze) replicates Parthenon exterior
    • Commemorates important figures in German history = 'monument of German unity' while Napoleon was dominating Europe
    • Named after Norse myth Walhalla
    • Representative of Germanic "claim" over Greek history
  5. Image Upload 5
    • Nelly's photo of dancer Nikolska in Parthenon 1929
    • Naked dancer in a building dedicated to a virgin goddess - originally disliked
    • Question of whether or not it polluted the sacred ground of the Acropolis (like the Anafiotika)
    • Being nude in the Parthenon (Acropolis) was forbidden because the Acropolis wasn't public - being there was a privilege
    • Angry because she tried to make the Parthenon a decor - but she was the decor
  6. Image Upload 6
    • Parthenon coffee cup from Greek diner
    • Way for an expatriated Greek to show pride in homeland
    • Doesn't deform the Parthenon
    • Uses it for commercial gain but for the gain in the name of GREEK culture
    • Not a giant company that threatens the overall meaning of the building
    • Greece wouldn't accept money from anyone besides UNESCO (international organization) - the Acropolis is a gift to the world, so the world needs to pay to fix it
    • Acropolis represents Greek nation and Greek-ness - gives a special connection to the homeland no matter WHERE you are - especially for emigrated Greeks
  7. Image Upload 7
    • Greek Tourist Organization 2007 "Greece: exploreyoursenses" Poster
    • Opposites: person vs. object
    • Reflection of Caryatids in eye suggest they surpass their inanimate form - the Acropolis is alive in every Greek
    • Used for monetary gain but the gain is for Greece - and the sculptures are uncompromised
  8. Image Upload 8
    • Academy of Athens
    • Designed by Theophil Hansen 1859-89
    • Draws on Temple of Nike (replica)
    • Statues of Plato and Socrates - founded on the idea of Plato's Academy
    • Part of the "trilogy" (University, Academy, Library)
    • Paid for by Panagis Villianos
    • Brings the classical aspect of the buildings on the Acropolis down to the modern city of Athens
    • Neoclassical building to incorporate both ancient and current architecture
  9. Image Upload 9
    • Nazi Occupation of Athens, April 1941; a plaque commemorates act of resistance by M. Glezos and A. Santas
    • Nazi occupation --> raise war flag over Acropolis as a sign of power and that the Acropolis is no longer the symbolic fortress of Athens
    • Glezos and Santas snuck in through caves May 30 and tore down flag - ran from Erechtheion to flag with guards present - weren't caught: began the resistance movement to the Nazi occupation in Greece
    • Local vs. Global claims on Greece - especially German claims
  10. Image Upload 10
    • Plaka, neighborhood north of Acropolis with neoclassical buildings and traces of all eras of Athenian past:
    •           Classical: monument of Lysikrates
    •           Roman: Hadrian's Library (etc.)
    •           Turkish: Fetije Mosque (etc.)
    •           Byzantine: numerous churches
    • Ancient neighborhood, narrow winding streets, footprint of the ancient city
    • Abandoned after 1826 after intense battles
    • Set for demolition afterwards but landowners intervene: Plaka = picturesque element
    • 1884 fire opens the door to excavate Hadrian's library and the Roman Agora in the Plaka and pushes the main commercial center of Athens north around Athinas street
  11. Image Upload 11
    • Anafiotika
    • Building outside the plan - Anafi brought to build the city but weren't given a place to live - so they illegally built houses overnight so they couldn't be demolished (began in the 1840's)
    • The land of the Anafiotika was originally left untouched to be an archaeological dig site by Kleanthes and Scheaubert, but they didn't have the money to dig up all of Athens at the time
    • Vernacular style
    • Question of pollution: right at the base of the Acropolis - cooking smells and daily life events leak into the Acropolis and ruin it? Take away from its timelessness?
  12. Image Upload 12
    • Spyridon Louis, 1896 Marathon winner, in traditional "evzone" costume (kilt called foustanella)
    • Greek shepherd dressed in folk costume - national costume of Greece
    • Skirt looks like fluted columns
    • Greece as a major nation player thanks to him in the Olympics
  13. Image Upload 13
    • Modern Olympiad, Athens 1896 Poster
    • French used as universal language but the rest was ancient Greek
    • 776-1896 as if the games never stopped
    • Frieze in the corner and ancient ruins in the background
    • Woman in folk costume
    • Possible Greek flag in the bottom right corner
  14. Image Upload 14
    • Athens 2004 XXVIII Olympiad logo
    • Wreath to commemorate ancients
    • Blue and white - Greek flag
    • Unclosed circle - return to ancient past
    • Simple design based off of a drawing by Yiannis Tsarouchis to relate all aspects of Greek history together
    • Plays on both Hellenism and Romiosisini: brings the classical history of Athens (wreath) in with the modern history of Athens (drawing by a 20th century artist in a 20th century style)
    • Third Hellenic Civilization: the first two were the Classical era and the Byzantine era. Athens is separating itself from its intense past in order to come into its own as a nation
  15. Image Upload 15
    • Attiko Metro Excavation at Syntagma square, simultaneously an archaeological and building site
    • Athens' history is always present in its modern city
    • Started in 1990's took WAY longer than expected - every time they dug a little deeper they stumbled on another archaeological site
    • Ended up making an  underground museum with what they found
  16. Image Upload 16
    • Architect Dimitris Pikionis's Landscaping of area around Acropolis in the 1950's
    • Used stones from the site itself
    • No symmetry, hand cut to fit in each spot
    • Modernist style to contrast Acropolis but set like a cobblestone street of the older city
    • All Greek artisans were used - indiginization
    • Attempt to unify morphologically the sites around the Acropolis (due to a booming increase in tourism after WWII)
    • Consists of 2 paths: one to the Acropolis and another to Philopappos where the Acropolis can be viewed very nicely
  17. Image Upload 17
    • Group of men playing "Rebetika", popular urban music created by internal migrants and Asia Minor refugees after the Turko-Greek war
    • Seems to have started in Asia Minor and moved to Greece through these refugees - similar styles of the music have been found in towns of the late Ottoman Empire in both Greek and Turkish languages
    • Set up right across from Hadrian's library
    • Issue of pollution
    • Expanding poor population - songs about poverty and love, and maintaining independence in the face of adversity
    • Popular from the early 1900's to the 1960's among the urban poor
    • Revived in the 1970's all over the world and became popular with an audience that had no ties to the original generation of the music
  18. Image Upload 18
    • Neoclassical homes in the center of the city alongside steel/concrete/glass giant, example of "Antiparohi" system of exchange used for building Athens
    • Home owners would sell their homes to builders who would tear them down and make apartment complexes that the previous owner could then live in
  19. Image Upload 19
    • Melina Mercouri pictured before Parthenon at Acropolis metro stop
    • Minister of culture - aim to reclaim the Parthenon marbles
  20. Image Upload 20
    • Poster of Greek National Liberation Front (EAM)
    • "National Union, All on a war footing" Acropolis in the background
    • Acropolis' function as the symbolic fortress of Athens in WWII
    • Greek flag takes the place of the Nazi flag on the Acropolis
  21. Image Upload 21
    • Political prisoners of Civil War building (inaccurate 4x6) model of Parthenon
    • Use of Parthenon to represent "our way or the highway" political system
    • Between 1946-49 political prisoners were held on the island of Makronisos = 'the new Parthenon' since they had to build these replicas
    • Built replicas of the Erechtheion and St. Sofia
    • 'Erant' Greeks were sent there to be 'clensed' of their political 'sins' and reclaim their Greek-ness (and therefore the 'Greek' political view)
  22. Image Upload 22
    • "Made in Greece" 1967-74 Political poster criticizing dictatorship
    • Use of the Parthenon as a weapon to force Greeks to conform to their politics in order to maintain their "Greek-ness"
  23. Image Upload 23
    • "Greek Acropolis Protest" Oct 28, 2010
    • Protesting culture ministry workers: banner: NO FIRINGS on roof of Propylaia on "No" day which honored WWII veterans saying NO to Mussolini
    • Use of Acropolis' power and the day that celebrates resistance to protest their own problems
  24. Image Upload 24
    • Parthenon votive offering
    • Parthenon as an extension of the body - incorporates Parthenon into Christianity
    • Parthenon as an object of healing - wholeness and homeland implications?
    • Example of pagan holy sites being incorporated into Christianity (ex: Temples at Olympia and Delphi were converted into basilicas)
  25. Image Upload 25
    • Parthenon columns reshaped to advertise Coca Cola (American product) in 1992
    • Enraged the Greeks - defaced the Parthenon in order to gain money through it for non-Greek means
    • Threatened to change the base meaning of the building because of the corporation's power
    • Greek newspaper compared this to the Parthenon being used as a concentration camp - just as bad
  26. Image Upload 26
    • Cartoon ascribes loneliness to Caryatid in British Museum as if she were a person in a family
    • Anthropomorphizes the Caryatid
    • She is one of a larger element that needs to be complete - In Greece
  27. Image Upload 27
    • Poster of Greek Political Party of United Left
    • Crosses out Elgin and British Museum - demands the restoration of the marbles to their rightful place
    • Brings attention to the original name of the "Elgin Marbles" which would be the Parthenon Marbles
    • Horse is from the east pediment found in the British Museum
    • Circulated before 1994 European parliamentary elections
Card Set
MODGREEK 325 Challenge Images Set 2
Second half of the challenge images for Modern Greek 325