1. What 5 type of pregnant women is it necessary for them to take supplements?
    -women of low SES

    -pregnant teenagers

    -mothers with poor diet

    -multiple fetuses

  2. HOw much of a fluid increases should be consumed per day?
    3 liters
  3. what 6 things demand pregnant women to drink more water?
    -increase in maternal blood volume

    -body temperature regulation

    -production of amniotic fluid

    -combat fluid retention


    -reduce urinary tract infections
  4. Nutrition related concerns- Arund what time does Morning sickness occur?
    any time often all day
  5. Nutrition related concerns- When does morning sickness began? HOw long does it last?
    begins after the first missed period; lasts 12 to 16 weeks
  6. Nutrition related concerns- Is there a cure for morning sickness?
    no, they can only be reduced
  7. Nutrition related concerns-What is morning sickness?
    nausea and vomiting associated with pregnancy

    ***might be because of hormone imbalance
  8. Nutrition related concerns- Cravings and aversions- What is Pica?
    craving a non-food item

  9. Nutrition related concerns- Why do cravings and aversions occur?
    due to hormonal fluctuations, physiologic changes, or familial cultural roots
  10. Nutrition related concerns- Does having cravings and aversions mean there is a deficiency?
    there is little evidence that supports the idea that cravings indicate a deficiency
  11. Nutrition related concerns- How can heartburns and indigestion occur ? (2)
    -enlargement of the uterus pushes up on the stomach and compounds the problem

    -hormones in pregnancy relax smooth muscles, increasing heartburn.
  12. Nutrition related concerns- What is a hemorrhoids?
    swollen varicose veins in the rectum that are caused by or exarcerbated by constipation
  13. Nutrition related concerns-How can constipation and hemorrhoids occur?
    pregnancy hormones that cause smooth muscles to relax also slow the movement of material through the large intestine
  14. Nutrition related concerns-what is Gestational diabetes?
    -insufficient insulin production or

    -insulin resistance that increases blood glucose levels during pregnancy
  15. Nutrition related concerns- what percent of pregnancies will be exposed to gestational diabetes?
    7 percent
  16. Nutrition related concerns- Does gestational diabetes stay or leave after pregnancy?
    the condition resolves after birth occurs
  17. Nutrition related concerns- What can uncontrolled blood glucose levels lead to?
  18. Nutrition related concerns- gestational hypertension- What induces preeclampsia?
    pregnancy induces hypertension
  19. Nutrition related concerns- What is the only cure for preeclampsia?
  20. Nutrition related concerns- what can happen if preeclampsia is left untreated?
  21. Nutrition related concerns-What percent will be exposed to preeclampsia?
    7-8 percent
  22. Nutrition related concerns- Who is more at risk to acquire preeclampsia? (3)
    deficiencies in vitamin C, Vitamin E, and magnesium
  23. Are pregnant teenagers more prone to birth complications?
  24. If a vegetarian is eating diary and egg products, will they be safer than regular vegetarians?
  25. which 6 nutrients should vegetarians monitor their intake carefully?
    -vitamin D

    -vit. B6

    - vit. B12



  26. Why is calorie restriction bad for pregnancy?
    limits nutrients availability for the mothers and the fetus
  27. How many cups of coffee per day AND harmful
    more than 2 cups of coffee can increase the risk of miscarriage and low-birth weight
  28. can caffeine affect the fetus?
    yes, it crosses the placenta and reaches the fetus
  29. What is fetal alcohol syndrome?
    a variety of characteristics associated with prenatal exposure to high quantities of alcohol

    • *malformations of face,limbs,heart
    • *many developmental disabilities
  30. Does alcohol cross the placenta?
    yes, it is a teratogen
  31. When smoking during pregnancy, is fetal blood flow increased or reduced?
  32. What can maternal smoking do to the fetus?
    it is exposed to toxins

    ***increase risk of birth complications
  33. How do newborns suffer from drugs passing through the placenta ?
    newborns suffer withdrawal symptoms
  34. (birth spacing) What should be the minimum month span between births recommended?
    27 month span
  35. (birth spacing) shortened length may cause...(2)
    -low birth weight and premature delivery

    -birth complications
  36. 5 things that exercise do to pregnant women?
    -keeps them fit

    -great mood booster

    -helps compensate for increased appetite

    -helps keep blood pressure down

    -easier to lose weight after pregnancy
  37. What is lactation?
    production of breast milk
  38. What is prolactin?
    hormone responsible for the synthesis of milk
  39. What is oxyticin?
    hormone responsible for milk let down
  40. When is prolactin produced?
    by end of pregnancy
  41. what suppresses prolactin until brith? (2)
    estrogen and progesterone
  42. What is colostrum rich in? (4)



  43. How long is colostrum prodcued for?
    up to 7 days after birth
  44. What bacteria does colostrum contain?
    lactobacillus bifidus
  45. 2 other things besides nutrients that colostrum contain
    -contains certain immune factors

    • -has laxative properties
    • *helps get rid of the poop that looks like tar
  46. What is the main protein in mature milk?
  47. what other 2 things does mature milk contain?
    -iron binding proteins

    -immune proteins
  48. what happens to the fat composition in the mature milk after each feeding?
    it increases its fat composition
  49. How long does feeding take?
    20 minutes
  50. What is foremilk?
    mature milk that is watery and low in fat

    **this happens in the beginning
  51. What is hindmilk?
    • mature milk that is very high in fat
    • **happens after awhile of breastfeeding. comes after foremilk
  52. HOw many calories a day does milk productuon require?
    700-800 calories a day
  53. How many calories should lactating women consume a day for the first 6 months?
    330 calories per day pre-pregnancy
  54. How many calories should lactating women consume after the first 6 months?
    400 calories pre-pregnancy
  55. How many grams of protein does a lactating women need per day?
    15-20 grams above pre-pregnancy needs
  56. How many carbs are required per day for lactating women?
    80 grams above pre-pregnancy
  57. What is the primary carbohydrate for breast milk?
  58. What else does breast milk contain besides proteins and carbs? (3)
    -omega 3 fatty acids 

    -readily absorbed calcium

  59. whats the number of calories per pound a day should a infant in their first year consume?
    40-50 cal per pound a day
  60. Whats the percentage of fats in a diet of a first year infant?
  61. How fast do infants grow in their first year?
    10 inches and they triple their weight
  62. what are the 5 nutrient infants in their first year should place special attention to?

    -vit. D



  63. why are infants nutritional needs unique?
    -energy needs are high bc of rapid growth

    -digestive tracts and kidneys still immature

    -small in size
  64. micronutrients supplementation- Vitamin D?
    bc of limited exposure to sunlight
  65. micronutrients supplementation- iron?
    stores are depleted by the 6th month
  66. micronutrients supplementation- flouride?
    for tooth development
  67. micronutrients supplementation- vitamin b12?
    if the mother is vegan
  68. Is water essential during breast feeding?
    not required unless loss is excessive
  69. How long does World Health Organization recommends to breastfeed?
    for the first 2 years
  70. When should breat milk or formula be supplemented with otehr foods?
    4 to 6 months
  71. 3 advantages of bottle feeding
    -convenient if mother is sick

    -some women are not comfortable

    -commercial formula contains all the nutrients
Card Set
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