Reproductive Disease

  1. What are the different female reproductive diseases?
    • puppy vaginitis
    • pyometra
    • dystocia
    • pseudopregnancy
    • mastitis
    • eclampsia
    • tumors
  2. What is puppy vaginitis?
    inflammation of the vagina
  3. How do puppies get vaginitis?
    secondary infection from overgrowth of resident flora
  4. What are the clinical signs of puppy vaginitis?
    vulvar discharge
  5. How do we treat puppy vaginitis?
    • systemic antibiotics
    • usually resolves after first estrus or spaying
  6. What is pyometra?
    pus in the uterus
  7. Which female dogs get pyometra?
    older, intact
  8. How do dogs get pyometra?
    chronic exposure to progesterone
  9. What causes pyometra?
    • hyperplasia and hypertrophy of endometrial glands of the uterus
    • increased accumulation of secretions in the uterus
    • decreased myometrial contractions
    • secondary bacterial infection
  10. What are the common organisms that cause pyometra?
    • Escherichia coli
    • Staphylococcus spp
    • Streptococcus spp
    • Klebsiella
    • Pasteurella
    • Proteus
    • Moraxella
  11. How can estrogen compounds affect a female dog?
    can cause pyometra, endometritis 1 - 10 weeks after administration
  12. Can pyometra occur in cats?
    yes, but its not common
  13. What the two types of pyometra?
    • open pyometra
    • closed pyometra
  14. What is open pyometra?
    cervix open - discharge
  15. What is closed pyometra?
    cervix closed
  16. What are the clinical signs of pyometra?
    • may have purulent vulvar discharge
    • abdominal enlargement
    • vomiting
    • lethargy
    • PU/PD
    • systemic illness
  17. How do we diagnose pyometra?
    • clinical signs
    • vulvar discharge
    • neutrophilia, toxic left shift
    • radiographs - dense tubular structures, larger than small intestinal loops
    • ultrasound
  18. What can we see on an ultrasound when there is pyometra?
    • can determine uterine size
    • can see intraluminal fluid
    • can see stump pyometras
  19. How do we treat pyometra?
    • ovariohysterectomy is the treatment of choice
    • medical management only if a valuable breeding animal
    • open cervix pyometra ill
    • not critically ill
    • prostaglandin F2 alpha injections 
    • antibiotics
    • may have concurrent urinary tract infections
  20. What is dystocia?
    difficulty giving birth
  21. What maternal causes of dystocia?
    • uterine inertia
    • narrow pelvic canal (fracture)
    • psychological disturbances
    • hypocalcemia
    • uterine torsion
  22. What are some fetal causes of dystocia?
    • large fetus
    • transverse positioning
    • dead fetus
  23. When it is a dystocia?
    • in labor for more than 4 hours without delivery
    • more than 1 (or 2) hours between deliveries
    • green vaginal discharge develops during parturition
  24. How do we diagnose dystocia?
    • normal variation in parturition can make diagnosis difficult
    • physical exam
    • dog is systemically ill
    • digital rectal or vaginal exam
    • radiographs
    • ultrasound
  25. What will we see on a digital rectal or vaginal exam that can determine dystocia?
    • no pup in birth canal
    • pup lodged in canal
    • malposition of the fetus
  26. What will we see on a radiograph that can help diagnose dystocia?
    • dead pups in uterus - gas in uterus, skeletal collapse
    • large number of pups in a fatigued mother dog
    • very large pups
  27. What will we see on an ultrasound that will help diagnose dystocia?
    uterine gas
  28. How do we treat dystocia?
    • manipulation of pup in birth canal
    • oxytocin to cause uterine contractions
    • Caesarian section
    • may spay at time of Caesarian section
  29. What is a pseudopregnancy?
    false pregnancy, pseudocyesis
  30. When does pseudopregnancy occur?
    non-pregnant dog at end of estrus
  31. What can happen during pseudopregnancy?
    • mammary development
    • lactation
    • whelping behavior
    • nursing behavior
    • mothering behavior
  32. Is pseudopregnancy associated with a reproductive tract disease?
  33. How do we diagnose pseudopregnancy?
    • estrus 2 months prior
    • clinical signs
    • may develop mastitis
  34. How do we treat pseudopregnancy?
    • spontaneous remission within 2 - 3 weeks of onset
    • Ovaban is the only approved therapy
    • short term tranquilization for individuals that become aggressive
    • diazepam recommended
    • phenothiazines are contraindicated because they can exacerbate the clinical signs
  35. What is mastitis?
    inflammation of the mammary glands
  36. When does mastitis happen?
  37. Can mastitis occur with pseudopregnancy?
  38. What usually causes mastitis?
    usually an ascending bacterial infection - Escherichia coli, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus
  39. What are the clinical signs of mastitis?
    • mammary discomfort, redness
    • discolored milk
    • fever
    • reluctance to nurse
    • abscessed glands
  40. What is the treatment for mastitis?
    • antibiotics
    • cool or warm compresses
    • do not let neonates suckle severely infected glands
    • may have to hand-rear the pups
    • supportive therapy
  41. What are some other names for eclampsia?
    • hypocalcemia
    • puerperal hypocalcemia
  42. What is hypocalcemia?
    inadequate stores of usable calcium
  43. Can hypocalcemia be life-threatening?
  44. What dogs is elcampsia most common in?
    small breeds with large litters
  45. When do we usually see eclampsia?
    usually seen at peak lactation - 1 to 3 weeks post-partum
  46. What is eclampsia?
    mother dog's body is unable to draw enough calcium from her bones and she is not able to ingest enough oral calcium
  47. Is calcium supplementation during pregnancy necessary to prevent eclampsia?
  48. What are the clinical signs of eclampsia?
    • neurological changes
    • tremors, muscle fasciculation (twitching)
    • ataxia
    • weakness
    • disorientation
    • collapse
    • seizures
    • coma
    • death
  49. How do we treat eclampsia that have mild clinical signs?
    • calcium gluconate IM or SQ
    • oral calcium gluconate with vitamin D
    • puppies may continue to nurse
  50. How do we treat eclampsia that have severe clinical signs?
    • calcium gluconate IV, auscult heart
    • remove pups for 24 hours
    • daily calcium and vitamin D supplementation
  51. What does calcium gluconate treat?
    • cardiotoxic
    • dysrhythmias
    • bradycardia
  52. Are tumors of ovaries and uterus are uncommon in dogs and cats?
  53. Where are tumors of the female reproductive tract common?
    vaginal and vulvar tumors are the most common tumors of the canine female genital tract
  54. What are 50% of all tumors in female dogs?
    mammary tumors
  55. What types of animals get mammary tumors?
    older dogs and cats
  56. What is linked to the development of mammary tumors?
    estrogen and progesterone
  57. What is the risk of dogs getting mammary tumors if they are spayed before their first heat?
  58. What is the risk of a dog getting mammary tumors if they are spayed after their first heat?
  59. What is the risk of a dog getting mammary tumors if they are spayed after 2 or more heats?
  60. What percent of mammary tumors are benign in dogs?  Cats?
    • dogs:  50%
    • cats:  10 - 20%
  61. What are the clinical signs of mammary tumors ?
    • palpable firm nodule in the mammary gland or chain
    • single or multiple nodules
    • surrounding tissue may be involved
    • may have skin ulceration
    • cats - dyspnic from lung metastases
  62. How do we diagnose mammary tumors?
    • clinical signs
    • definitive diagnosis - biopsy - by wedge or complete excision
  63. How do we treat mammary tumors?
    • surgical excision
    • cats - radical mastectomy due to aggressiveness of tumors
    • may also spay
    • chemotherapy not proven to be very effective
    • antiestrogen treatment - some tumors are hormone sensitive and some are not - use tamoxifen (Novadex)
  64. What are some male reproductive diseases?
    • benign prostatic hyperplasia
    • prostatitis
    • prostatic neoplasia
    • testicular neoplasia
    • paraphimosis
  65. Where and what is the prostate?
    • caudal to the bladder
    • encircles the proximal urethra at the neck of the bladder
    • produces fluid that transports sperm during ejaculation
    • increases in size as the dog ages
  66. What happens to a dogs prostate when they are neutered before maturity?
    have normal prostate growth inhibited
  67. What happens to the prostate if neutered as adults?
    the prostate undergoes involution (shrinks)
  68. _____ of intact male dogs will have hyperplasia?
  69. What are the clinical signs of benign prostatic hyperplasia?
    • asymptomatic
    • tenesmus
    • may have urethral discharge
    • may have hematuria
    • palpation - enlarged, nonpainful
  70. How do we diagnose benign prostatic hyperplasia?
    • abdominal radiographs
    • ultrasound
    • palpation
    • biopsy
    • positive response to neutering
  71. What will we see on abdominal radiographs with benign prostatic hyperplasia?
    • enlargement
    • dorsal displacement of colon
    • cranial displacement of bladder
  72. What is the definitive diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia?
  73. How do we treat benign prostatic hyperplasia?
    • neutering - 70% decrease in size within 7 - 14 days
    • if neutering is not feasible:  estrogen therapy - causes prostate atrophy and bone marrow suppression
  74. What is prostatitis?
    bacterial infection of the prostate
  75. What may develop with prostatitis?
  76. What bacteria can cause prostatitis?
    • Escherichia coli
    • Klebsiella
    • Proteus
    • Staphylococcus
    • Streptococcus
  77. What are the clinical signs of prostatitis?
    • affects sexually mature dogs
    • anorexia
    • fever
    • lethargy
    • stiff gait in rear limbs
    • caudal abdominal pain
    • dripping fluid from prepuce
  78. How do we diagnose prostatitis?
    • urinalysis - WBCs, bacteria, urine culture and sensitivity
    • ultrasound
  79. How do we treat prostatitis?
    • antibiotics - long term
    • base antibiotics choice on culture and sensitivity
    • neuter
  80. What are the different types of testicular neoplasia?
    • sertoli cell tumors
    • interstitial cell tumors
    • seminomas
  81. What can sertoli cell tumors and seminomas do?
    may produce estrogen - feminizing effects
  82. _____ of all tumors in dogs are testicular tumors.
    5 - 15%
  83. Which dogs are at greatest risk for testicular neoplasia?
  84. What are the clinical signs of testicular neoplasia?
    • testicular enlargement, nodules
    • nonpainful
    • feminization
  85. What kind of feminization happens with testicular neoplasia?
    • bilateral symmetrical alopecia
    • hyperpigmentation of inguinal area
    • gynecomastia - excessive mammary development in males
    • nonregenerative anemia
    • thrombocytopenia
  86. How do we treat testicular neoplasia?
    • neuter
    • exploratory laparotomy to find retained testicles
  87. What is paraphimosis?
    • penis protrudes from the preputial sheath
    • cannot be replaced to its normal position
  88. What are the different types of paraphimosis?
    • congenital
    • trauma
    • infection
  89. What are the clinical signs of paraphimosis?
    • depend on duration
    • penis - congested, discolored
    • excess licking furthers trauma
    • look for hair ring
    • can cause severe trauma and necrosis of exposed penis
  90. How do we treat paraphimosis?
    • replace penis into prepuce
    • lubricants, hyperosmolar solutions, heat or cold
    • if cannot get replaced within a few hours, place urethral catheter
    • temporary or permanent surgical enlargement of preputial opening
    • penile amputation
Card Set
Reproductive Disease
Animal Diseases