IGCSE Geograpy Case Studies

  1. General named river
    River Tees, Northern England

    e.g. There's a waterfall on the River Tees
  2. Ganges Delta - River Deposition
    • In Bangladesh which is North of the Bay of Bengal with over 120 million people living
    • there
    • Bangladesh is an LEDC
    • The Ganges river is 2500km long with its source in the Himalayas
    • Most of the country is part of a low-lying delta
    • The delta is formed when the river deposits its load due to it being overburdened and/or the velocity reducing
    • Flooding and irrigation allow for all-year cropping of rice and vegetables. Jute is a major crop and fish are plentiful
    • Price on living there is high due to monsoon rains, cyclones and floods as well as other regular natural disasters
  3. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Ganges Delta
    • Advantages:
    • All-year round rice and vegetables
    • Supply of fish
    • Good river transport
    • Flat land to build on
    • Supply of water

    • Disadvantages:
    • Regular flooding kills crops
    • Flooding blocks roads
    • Unable to keep livestock
    • Difficult to build sturdy structures
    • Pollution in the river
  4. Niagra Falls - River Erosion
    • Consists of 2 waterfalls: the American Falls and the Horseshoe Falls
    • The waterfalls mark the border between New York State, USA (AF) and Ontario, Canada (HF)
    • They formed around 18000 years ago when ice melted releasing torrents of water which eroded the waterfall gradually backwards
  5. Floods in Mozambique
    • One of the poorest countries with a GDP of 800 US dollars
    • 19 million people live on the floodplains
    • 9th - 11th Feb 2000 there was torrential rain
    • 22nd Feb Cyclone Eline hit
    • 27th Feb more heavy rainfall
    • Flooding was 2.5m above normal flood levels
    • More than 180000 people fled
    • 81 people died
  6. Short and Long term aid for the Floods in Mozambique
    • Short Term:
    • Aid from foreign governments, organisations and charities
    • Temporary shelter, vaccines, food and water

    • Long term:
    • Aid enabling basic living for the comming years
    • Building materials, machinery, seeds and water pumps
  7. Opportunities and problems with living on the Mozambique Floodplains
    • Opportunities:
    • Fertile farming soil
    • Flat land to build on
    • Water for irrigation
    • Transport system

    • Problems:
    • Loose crops and livestock in floods
    • Unstable buildings
    • Crocodiles
    • Transport links are disrupted
  8. Chaiten, Chilie - Volcano
    • Chilie is on the west coast of South America, Latitude 20oS-60oS and Longitude 70oW
    • Chilie is about 400 miles long and 200 miles at its widest
    • It has over 2000 ash and lava volcanos, 500 active
    • Chaiten is on the border of the Soth American plate (continental) and the Nazca plate (oceanic), this is a destructive boundary
    • Chaiten is home to about 4500 people and is a developing tourist center
    • The Chaiten volcano last erupted 9000 years ago forming a cadera volcano with a crater over 3km wide
  9. The eruption of Chaiten Volcano
    • 2nd May 2008 erupted for the first time in 9000 years
    • Magma trickled through the boundary between the SA plate and the N plate and built up between the volcano. This built up pressure causing the eruption

    • The effects of the eruption:
    • Many homes and buissness' lost
    • Large as clouds formed
    • Flights disrupted
    • Ash makes breathing difficult and can be poisonous
    • Lava kills plants and animals
    • Crops and livestock lost
    • Government hasd to pay for rebuild
    • 1 death due to heart attack after inhailing ash
  10. Why people live by Chaiten Volcano
    • In some flat valleys the soil is very fertile
    • It' swet enough for pasture
    • Easier to stay than move due to poor transport links
    • Make money out of tourism
    • Told safe by authorities
    • It's where their family has always lived
  11. Sichuan Earthquake, China
    • 12th May 2008 China's most devistating earthquake in 30 years occured
    • The epicentre, of the 7.9 magnitude earthquake, was at a depth of 10kmwas in the mountainous region of the Sichuan province. This area is vunerable to earthquakes because its on a converging plate boundary

    • The effects of the earthquake:
    • A primary school of 900 pupils was amongst thousands of buildings that collapsed
    • The Zipingpu dam is on of the most modern in China but was built on the fault line
    • 2 HEP stations were seriously damaged
    • Heavy rain and landslides have added to the problems
    • Almost 200000 survivors were evacuated and 1.3 million moved to higher ground
    • Strong aftershocks, some exceeding a magnitude of 6, continued for months after causing more casualties and damage
  12. The Twelve Apostles - Coastal Erosion
    • Located at Port Campbell National Park, Victoria, Australia
    • Formed as a result of different rates of erosion along the coastline
    • Headlines formed where the rocks were more resistant
    • At the base of the cliffs on these headlands, erosion forms caves and then arches
    • These collapse leaving stacks, the tallest 45m high
    • The rate of erosion is 2cm a year
  13. The Hel. Spit - Coastal Deposition
    • The Hel. Peninsula is situated at the Western end of Gdansk Bay of the Baltic Sea in Northen oland
    • It is 36km long
    • Formed as a result of longshore drift from W-E
    • Erosion in W and deposition in E
    • Beach matrial is sorted by waves - large sediments at the top of the beach and smaller ones close to the sea
  14. The Great Barrier Reef - Coral Reef
    Located in Queensland, Australia

    • Threats
    • Tourism, boating swimming and litter damages coral
    • Industry and sewage, eutrophication and toxic pollutants gamage reefs
    • Fishing, over fishing the reef affects the top layer of the ecosystem
    • Dredging, Mud clouds clear water and coral dies due to lack of sunlight

    • Opportunities:
    • Employs 6% of the workforce
    • Contributes to 12% of the country's exports
    • Fishing industry is worth 1 billion Australian dollars annually
  15. Madagascar - Tropical Rainforests
    • Mean temp. 30o
    • Lowest temp. 16o
    • Most rain falls in th winter months
    • Annual average of rainfall is 1640ml
    • It is mostly relief rain
    • Prevailing trade wind from SE brings rain from the Indian ocean
    • The warm moist air rises giving low pressure and rain clouds all year
    • High humidity all year round
    • All rainforests are between 25oN and 25oS
  16. Sahara - Tropical Desert
    • Mean temp. of hottest month 36o
    • Mena temp. of coldest month 10o
    • There is a high diurnal range
    • Less than 250ml of rainfall per year
    • Most deserts are on the western edge of continents, the prevailing wind blow east across the land and so cannot pick up moisture from the sea
    • Air cools and sinks over the tropics giving sub-tropical igh pressure weather systems. Rainfall cannot occur so the area is arid and hot deserts form
    • Very few high level or dry clouds
    • Low humidity
  17. Niger - Rapid Poulation Growth
    • A land locked LEDC in West Africa, with a hot dry climate including desert areas
    • Its population has grown from 1.7 million in 1960 to 13 million in 2008
    • This is a 2.9% grrowth rate, its expected to reach 56 million by 2050
    • There is the highest fertility rate: 7.1 births per woman
    • Nearly half the population is under 15
    • Only 5% of the population uses birth control
    • The life expectancy is 44.3
    • 90% of people earn thyeir living through agriculture
    • Death rates are falling due to: vaccines, clena water, better diet, better health care, more education, better living conditions
    • Problems faced include: lack of health care, lack of education, lack of jobs, and lack of clean water
  18. Russia - Population Decline
    The population is currently 143 million but is expected to reach 111 million by 2050

    • Reasons include:
    • High death rate
    • Low birth rate: 1.1 per woman
    • Low immigration rate
    • High emmigration rate
    • Alcohol related deaths
    • 1 million have AIDS
    • Women prioritise jobs over have children

    • Solutions:
    • Raising child benefits for more children
    • Education incentives
  19. Indonesia - Transmigration
    • Indonesia is made up of 17000 islands but only 9000 are inhabited
    • Islands like Java and Bali are overcrowded
    • Islands like Jaya and Irain are incredibly underpopulated
    • The government is encouraging transmigration
    • Effects of transmigration:
    • Reduce poverty and overpopulation in Java
    • Opportunities for the poor
    • Better use of natural resources on the underpopulateed islands
  20. Nigeria - Overpopulation
    • Nigeria's population is 140 million
    • 70% earn les than 1 dollar a day
    • Nigeria occupies 3% of Africa but holds 15% of Africa's population

    • Problems include:
    • Less natural resources
    • More pollution
    • Lack of health care/education
    • Increased spread of disease
    • Inadequate sanitation
    • Increased crime
    • Lack of housing

    • In Lagos 273 civilians and 84 policemen were killed during robberies and crime
    • Many of Lagos' 9 million live in shanities
    • Many hope the vote will provide a better life
  21. Australia - Under Population
    • Australia's population is 20.6 million
    • Agriculture involves the production of wheat, barley, sugarcane, cattle and sheep
    • Industry involves mining, food processing, production of steels and chemicals
    • Australia is about the same size as the USA (300 million people) but much of its land is not used
    • Population has gone up from 3.7 million in 1901

    • Problems caused by underpopulation:
    • Small workforce
    • Bad economy
    • Ageing population
    • Not full use of natural resources

    • Solutions:
    • Give benefits to those with children (increasing with number)
    • Relaxing VISA rules
    • More people move for job oppertunities
  22. China - Reducing Population
    • In 1970's there was a lack of food and jobs due to overpopulation
    • In the 1980's the one child policy was introduced. It's aims were to modernise agriculture, industry, defence, science and technology
    • Its growth has decreased from 2.4 to1%. In 2006 the fertility rate was 1.7 and the policy prevented over 300 million births

    • Consequences:
    • Population of 1.3 billion
    • Ratio of girls to boys is 86:100
    • Increase in abortions
    • Increase in divorce
    • Girls are killed and abandoned
  23. Singapore - Increasing Population
    • Used to be a British colony until 1965. There are limited natural resources
    • Its a tiger economy which means its rapidly growing
    • Since 1955 there have been various population policies
    • From 1955-1985 smaller families were encourage, In 1957 the fertility rate was 6.4 but dropped to less than 2 in 1980
    • The aim was to improve political stability, infrastructure, living standards, health care and to cut unemployment
    • In 1985 the work force had become too small so larger families were encouraged

    • To do this they have:
    • Offered a £10000 tax rebate for couples with four children
    • Provided match making for those with A-levels
    • Offered graduates with large families places at the best schools

    Currently the fertility rate is still low at 1.4 because people want the choice and flexibility but it's hoped the population will increase by 40% in the next 40 years
  24. Namibia - Low population density
    • There is a low population density of just 2.5/km2 (one of the most sparsely populated in the world)
    • It's in Southern Africa along the Atlantic Coast
    • It has a hot, dry climate with lots of land occupied by desert. There is little rainfall
    • It's GDP per person is 5200 US dollars and the countries economy is dependent on the extraction and processing of minerals for export
    • Mining employs 3% of the population whilst half of the population relies on subsistence agriculture
  25. Japan - High population density
    Japan is one of the most densely populated countries in the world - 339/km2 - mostly in urban areas

    • The coasts of Honshu Island are the most densely populated because:
    • Flat land makes it easy to build upon
    • There are many harbours for imports and exports
    • There is a growing fishing industry

    • The three main areas are: Tokyo, Nogoya and Osaka
    • Outside of urban areas there are high density rural areas. People live there due to the fertile soil, flat land, warm climate and good transport links
    • Over 2/3 of central Japan is mountainous. Few people live here due to steep slopes, acidic soils, isolated communities, little work and extreme climate
  26. Poland - Immigration to the UK
    • Nearly 600000 migrants chose to work in the UK in 2004 from the A8, 62% of these were Polish
    • The migrants were happy to take unskilled work in the UK such a factory work, kitchen assistants, farm workers and domestic work

    • Positives for UK:
    • Poles fill unwanted jobs
    • Can pay low wages
    • Can work long hours
    • Boosts the local economy

    • Negatives for UK
    • Fewer jobs for unskilled workers
    • May move back once they have earned enough
    • Anti-immigration issues and racism
    • Schools and hospitals are unable to cope with increased numbers

    • Positives for Poles:
    • Chance for a better paid job
    • Save money and return to improve life
    • Move out of their parents house

    • Negatives for Poles:
    • May have to leave family
    • Encounter hostility in the UK due to language and culture
    • May struggle to obtain housing
  27. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia - Rural Settlement
    • 85% of Ethiopians live in small villages
    • Flat, fertile plateaus are intensively cultivated
    • Soil is wash into Blue Nile due to deforestation
    • Heavy rainfall and high temperatures are good for the crops but the rains don't always arrive on time
    • Only 13% of the land can be used for crop production, the rest is forest, mountain, savannah and pasture 
  28. Brittany, France - Rural Settlement
    • Young people move to urban areas leaving an ageing population with few services
    • Tourists replace young people
    • Changing farming activity: larger fields, fewer hedgerows and different crops
    • Declining economy as local business' are replaced by superstores
    • Majority of the population only live there in the summer
  29. Sardinia - Urban Settlement
    • An Italian Island in the Mediterranean Sea
    • Total population of 1.7 million
    • Until recently most of the population lived inland and the economy was based on agriculture and mining
    • In the last 50 years tourist development has taken place in coastal areas
    • There are now a number of towns as well as a port and airport
  30. Barcelona - Land Use
    • Located on the Mediterranean coast of Spain with features of a typical Western European city
    • The 1992 Olympics and 2004 Universal Forum of Cultures lead to many changes; improvement in use of factories for new technologies and the Olympic villageImage Upload 1
  31. Mumbai, India - Urbanisation
    • Urbanisation in India is taking place faster then anywhere else. By 2030 41% of India's population will be living in urban areas compared with the current 28%
    • Many people expect a high quality of life but the growth has put a great strain on the infrastructure
    • There is now a huge contrast in the rich and the poor
    • Dharavi is Asia's largest slum and has poor sanitation, buildings and health care
  32. Lima, Peru - Urbanisation
    • About 35% of Peru's 10 million live in Lima, a massive rise from the 10% of the population in 1940
    • People move in hope of a better quality of life
    • Most used to live in villages in the Andes and farmed crops and kept animals

    • Factors influencing migration to Lima:
    • Not enough agricultural land
    • Drought and other natural hazards
    • To poor for food and clothes
    • Little opportunity for education
    • Low prices for produce
    • No running water, electricity or sewerage disposal

    • What they experience in Lima:
    • Racial discrimination
    • Separation from family
    • Better services
    • Better schools
    • Low pay and long hours
    • Self-built housing or homelessness
  33. Cairo - Urban problems and sollutions
    • Problems:
    • Lack of housing
    • Traffic congestion
    • Lack of jobs
    • Pollution

    • Solutions:
    • Satellite and dormitory towns built
    • Ring road built
    • Modern metro system
    • Repairing sewerage system
    • Upgrading homes and services
    • People with donkey carts licenced to collect garbage
  34. Baltimore - Problems and solutions
    • Problems:
    • By 1970' the port and shipbuilding industries were no longer important
    • The inner harbour consisted of abandoned warehouses and land

    • Solutions:
    • Urban renewal
    • Built and expanded Baltimore Convention Centre
    • Harbour place became urban retail and restaurant complex
    • Nation Aquarium and Baltimore Museum of Industry were opened
    • The area is now busy with business', housing, recreation and tourist attractions
    • This created jobs, housing and improved the local economy
    • Good transport links to local areas and key towns and cities
  35. Atlanta - Urban Sprawl
    • Capital city of the state of Georgia, USA
    • Between 2000 and 2006, Atlanta added 1 million residents to its population. This growth has resulted in urban sprawl
    • 1/3 of the increase was births and the rest new comers

    • This has lead to a number of problems:
    • Traffic congestion
    • Poor air quality
    • Poorer water quality and quantity
    • Reduced agricultural land
    • Loss of green space and ecosystems
    • More impermeable surfaces
    • Cultural loss
    • Socio-economic division
    • Heating up due to loss of trees and increase in concrete
  36. Sudan - Forced migration
    • Located in NE Africa, below Egypt and to the right of Chad
    • Sudan has been involved in many armed conflicts and civil wars
    • Drought, poverty and poor health care worsens the conflicts as it leads to malnutrition, dehydration and disease
    • Many people are forced to leave Sudan so as to save themselves and their families
    • They often end up in refugee camps and are supported by foreign aid
  37. UK - Rural to Urban migration
    • From Wales and Northern England to large cities further South like London
    • Margaret Thatchers time in office and her policies led to large scale privatisation of heavy industry
    • This lead to de-industrialisation of mines, ship-builders and steel-works
    • Many people in small rural villages worked in these industries and lost their jobs. This forced them to move to the cities to find work to support their families
  38. Botswana - HIV and AIDS
    • Botswana is in southern Africa, above South African and between Namibia and Zimbabwe
    • Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a sexually transmitted infection which attacks the body's immune system
    • Aquired Imune Deficiency Syndrome is a term used to describe the later stages of HIV when the immune system has stopped working
    • More than 20% of adults aged 15-49 are infected with HIV or AIDS
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IGCSE Geograpy Case Studies
Details on case studies for IGCSE geography