Science Exam

  1. Core
    • Outer: (2250 km thick) contains liquid Ni, Fe 2200 degrees celcius.
    • Inner: (1200 km thick) contains solid Ni, Fe 5000 degrees celcius.
  2. Mantle
    2900 km thick, contains Si, O2, Fe, Mg, 870 degrees celcius
  3. Crust
    • 5-40 km thick, contains O2, Si, Al, Ca, Fe, Na, K, Mg.
    • Oceanic Crust: mostly basalt.
    • Continental Crust: mostly granite.
  4. Lithosphere
    Upper part of the mantle including some of the crust, made of hard rock.
  5. Asthenosphere
    Lower part of mantle, made of flowing rock.
  6. Plate
    Section of lithosphere. Huge chunks of land that fit together.
  7. Pangaea
    One super continent of all continents joined in one single land mass that slowly seperated.
  8. Convergent Boundary
    Plates move together forming mountains or trenches.
  9. Divergent Boundary
    Plates move apart forming a rift valley.
  10. Transform Boundary
    2 plates slip past each other.
  11. Continental Shelf
    An area by the shore that connects the oceanic and continental crust.
  12. Continental Slope
    Land that ends at the boundary line.
  13. Guyot
    Seamount with a flat top that will never erupt again.
  14. Trench
    A deep valley underwater created by convergent boundaries and subduction.
  15. Ocean Basin or Abyssal Plain
    The flat part of the ocean floor.
  16. Island
    Land in the middle of the ocean completly surronded by water.
  17. Seamount
    An underwater mountain.
  18. Cinder Cone Volcano
    Steep, thick lava, explosive (Mexico).
  19. Shield Volcano
    Wide, gentle slope, thin lava, quiet (Hawaii).
  20. Composite Volcano
    Alternating cinder cone and sheild (Fuji, Mt. St. Helens).
  21. Lava
    • Molten rock above ground.
    • 1) Thin Lava
    • Pahoehoe - fast moving, hot, thin, dries smooth.
    • Aa - slower, cool, dries brittle.
    • 2) Thick Lava
    • Cinders (small pieces) and bombs (baseball to car size)
    • Pyroclastic Flow = ash + cinders + bombs
  22. Magma
    Molten rock under ground - contains silica.
  23. Caldera
    Huge hole left by volcano collapse (Crater Lake).
  24. Normal Fault
    Caused by tension, hanging wall slides down.
  25. Reverse Fault
    Caused by compression, hanging wall slides up.
  26. Strike-Slip Fault
    Caused by shearing (San Andreas).
  27. Tension
    Pulls on rocks so they become thinner in the center.
  28. Compression
    Pushes on rocks until they fold or break.
  29. Shearing
    Moves rock side to side in opposite directions.
  30. Hot Spot
    Magma melts through the crust.
  31. Ring of Fire
    Rims Pacific Ocean, most along divergent boundaries.
  32. Epicenter
    Point directly above focus on surface of the Earth.
  33. P-waves
    (Primary) first, fast, move back & forth.
  34. S-waves
    (Secondary) move side to side but not in liquid.
  35. L-waves
    (Surface) when P and S reach epicenter, slow, damaging.
  36. Focus
    Spot under Earth where plates slip.
  37. Mineral
    • 1) Natural - not man made.
    • 2) Inorganic - made from nonliving objects.
    • 3) Solid - not liquid or gas.
    • 4) Repeating crystal pattern.
    • 5) Definite chemical compisition.
  38. Streak Test
    A color of powder on unglazed plate.
  39. Luster Test
    Reflection of light (shiny, dull, metallic, glassy, waxy, pearly).
  40. Hardness Test
    • Mohs Scale
    • 1=softest to 10=hardest
  41. Crystal
    Created when the liquid in the solution evaporates leaving crystals behind.
  42. Rock
    A combination of minerals.
  43. Sedimentary Rock
    Weathering (breaks down), erosion (carries fragments away), deposition (fragments settle down), compaction (sediments squeeze together tightly), cementation (dissolved minerals glue fragments).
  44. Igneous Rock
    Cooled lava or magma.
  45. Metamorphic Rock
    Heat and pressure on other rocks.
  46. Fossil
    Must be dead, at least 10,000 years old, show evidence of life.
  47. Rotation
    How long it takes for a planet to spin once on it's axis.
  48. Revolution
    How long it takes a planet to orbit around the sun.
  49. Ellipse
    Oval orbit due to gravity and inertia.
  50. Eclipse
    • Solar - sun is blocked by moon.
    • Lunar - moon is blocked by Earth.
  51. Inner Planets
    Small, rocky surfaces - Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars.
  52. Outer Planets
    Large, surfaces not solid - Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune.
  53. Comet
    Ice, dust, gas, orbiting the sun.
  54. Asteroid
    Small rock chunks - big band seperates inner from outer planets.
  55. Meteoroid
    Rock chunk that orbits.
  56. Meteor
    Breaks free/burns in orbit.
  57. Meteorite
    Hits Earth.
  58. Photosphere
    The lowest layer of the sun's atmosphere from which light is given off.
  59. Chromosphere
    Extends upward about 10,000 km.
  60. Corona
    Goes into space for millions of km.
  61. Sunspot
    Cooler gases on the surface.
  62. Universe
    All of space and everything in it.
  63. Galaxy
    Billions of stars - grouped acording to shape (spiral, elliptical, irregular).
  64. Solar System
    The sun and everything that orbits it.
  65. Light Year
    Distance light travels in a year (6 trillion miles).
  66. H-R Diagram
    Shows relationship between star surface temperature and brightness.
  67. Protostar, Main Sequence, Red Giant, Death
    Star life.
  68. Polaris
    North pole star.
  69. Sirius
    Dog star, brightest star.
  70. Proxima Centauri
    Closest star (4.2 light years).
  71. Constellations
    88 star pictures named by Greeks, Romans, Native Americans, and all other early peoples.
  72. Anticline Fold
    Layers that fold upwards.
  73. Syncline Fold
    Layers that fold downwards.
  74. Talc, Sulfur, Diamond, Graphite, Pyrite
  75. Limestone, Obsidian, Granite, Sandstone, Marble.
  76. Principle of Cross-Cutting
    The intrusion (magma shooting up and hardening) is newer.
  77. Law of Superposition
    Top layers are newer, bottom are older.
  78. Seasons
    Summer Solstice (June 21), Winter Solstice (December 21), Vernal Equinox (March 21), Autumn Equinox (September 22).
  79. Moon Phases
    New moon, waxing crescent, 1st quarter, waxing gibbous, full moon, waning gibbous, 3rd quarter, waning crescent.
Card Set
Science Exam
Wednesday, June 2, 2010