PTG 105 -Exam 3- Lecture 18 -4

  1. What percent of female cancers are represented by ovarian cancer?
  2. What is protective against ovarian cancer?
    Use of oral contraceptives
  3. The use of oral contraceptives is protective against wht disease?
    Ovarian cancer
  4. What are the risk factors for Ovarian cancer?
    • nulliparity
    • family history
    • genetics
  5. What genetic factors predispose women to Ovarian cancer?
    BRCA1 and BRCA2 impart a 20-30% increase in risk
  6. What risk factor imparts a 20-30% increase in Ovarian cancer?
    Genetics: BRCA1 and 2
  7. What is nulliparity?
    Never been pregnant
  8. What is the term for never been pregnant?
  9. Nulliparity, Family history and BRCA1 and 2 all impart a greater risk of what disease?
    Ovarian cancer
  10. What are the three types of ovarian tumor?
    • Surface epithelial tumors
    • Germ cell tumors
    • Sex cord stromal tumors
  11. Sex cord stromal tumors, surface epithelail tumors and germ cell tumors are all types of what disease?
    Ovarian tumors
  12. Surface epitherlium tumors begin where?
    On the surface of the ovaries
  13. What percent of ovarian tumors are represented by Surface epithelial tumors?
  14. Which type of Ovarian tumor is most common, representing 70-80%
    Surface epithelium tumors
  15. What type ovarian tumors begin in the egg producing cells?
    Germ cell tumors
  16. Germ cell tumors bgin in what area?
    The egg producing cells of the ovaries
  17. Germ cell tumors represent what percent of all ovarian tumors?
  18. What type tumors represent 15-20% of ovarian tumors? 
    Germ cell tumors
  19. What is the most uncommon form of ovarian tumor?
    Sex cord stromal tumors
  20. Where do Sex cord stromal tumors start at?
    The supportive tissues surrounding the ovaries
  21. What two types of ovarian tumors are extremely rare?
    Germ cell tumors and Sex cord stromal tumors
  22. Which two type sof ovarian tumor smostly target very young women (less than 25 years)
    germ cell and Surface epithelial tumors
  23. What type type of ovarian tumor is most likley to be malignant (a rate of 90%)?
    Surface epithelial cell tumors of the ovaries
  24. Which type of overian tumor is found in women of all ages?
    Sex cord stromal tumors
  25. An ovarian cyst manifests itself with what symptoms?
    • Abdominal discomfort
    • Abnormal vaginal bleeding
    • Weight loss or gain
    • Reduced appetite
    • Abdominal swelling
  26. What disease manifest itself with abdominal swelling, weight loss or gain, Abdominal discomfort, abnormal vaginal bleeding and appetite loss?
    Ovarian cysts
  27. Epithelial tumors of the ovaries come in what 3 common types?
    • Serous
    • Miconous
    • Endometriod
  28. Endometriod, Serous and Mucinous are type of what group of tumors?
    Epithelial ovarian tumors
  29. Describe a serous tumor:
    The epithelium resembles that of the fallopian tube
  30. When the epithelium of the ovary resembles that of the fallopian tube, what type of tumor would this be called?
    • Epithelial tumor:
    • Serous
  31. If the epithelium of the ovary resembles that of the cervix, what type of tumor would this be?
    • Epithelial:
    • Mucinous
  32. If the epithelium of the ovaries represents that of the endometrium, what would call this tumor type?
    • Epithelial:
    • Endometrioid
  33. What is the term for a tumor where the ovarian epithelium resembles the cervix?
  34. What is the term for a tumor of the ovaries that has epithelail cells that look like endometrial cells?
  35. Each type of epithelial cancer can be further divided into what three catagories?
    • Benign
    • Borderline
    • Malignant
  36. What tumor marker do ovarian tumors secrete?
    CA 125
  37. CA 125 is what?
    Tumor marker for ovarian cancer
  38. What can Ca 125 be used for?
    • Diagnosis
    • Assessing response to treatmen
  39. What tool can be used to diagnose and assess the response of an ovarian tumor to treatment?
    Tumor marker CA 125
  40. What is the most common type of epithelian tumor of the ovaries?
    Serous (42%)
  41. What is the 2nd most common type of ovarian epithelial tumor?
    Endometrioid (21%)
  42. What is the least common type of ovarian epithelial tumor?
  43. What happens histologically in epithelial cancers between benign and malignancy?
    Increasing architecural complexity
  44. Increasing architectual complexity is a sign of what in epithelial tumors?
  45. What is the treatment of a benign ovarian epithelial tumor?
    surgical removal
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PTG 105 -Exam 3- Lecture 18 -4
PTG 105 -Exam 3- Lecture 18 -4