English Language Frameworks 2

  1. Phonology
    Is the study of patterns of sounds e.g. phonemes, syllables. It is not about pronounciation
  2. Phonetics
    Is the study of how speech sounds are made.
  3. Elision
    When sounds are left out e.g. everything becomes evrythin
  4. Assimilation
    When sounds that are next to each other become more alike e.g. handbag becomes hambag
  5. Anaphoric reference
    Refers back to to something that has already been mentioned e.g. My gran went to university. She wanted to be a teacher
  6. Cataphoric reference
    References something forward e.g. The man gave the following reasons for his decision
  7. Ellipsis
    Where words are left out of a sentence but meaning is not lost sometimes indicated by ...
  8. What are the 5 types of grammatical cohesion?
    • Reference-anaphoric or cataphoric
    • Identification-determiners
    • Ellipsis-where words are left out
    • Conjunctions-words that connect e.g. and, or
    • Adverbs-connect clauses by space and time e.g. tomorrow
  9. Lexical cohesion
    Links words through meaning rather than grammar e.g. repetition or collocation
  10. Collocation
    Words that commonly appear together e.g. neat and tidy, fast asleep they can't be rearranged
  11. Graphological cohesion
    The layout of a text can make it look cohesive e.g. using the same font or colour scheme.
  12. Prosody
    Non verbal aspects of speech; pitch, tone, volume, pace, pauses, stress. It can completely change the meaning of what is said.
  13. Politeness Strategies
    • Definite with negative word-no way
    • Definite without negative word-I'd rather die
    • Excuse-I'd love to but I'm busy
    • Evasive-Can we talk about this later
    • Apologetic-I'm sorry but
    • Inarticulate-erm, hmm
  14. Multi modal text
    Contains features of both speech and writing e.g. a very informal email or texts
  15. Register
    The different varieties of language used in different situations and contexts
  16. Sociolect
    The language of social groups can depend on age, education, occupation, culture
  17. Idiolect
    The unique language of an individual
Card Set
English Language Frameworks 2
Cards for revising AS Level English Language for AQA B