1. What are the 2 things that the respiratory is responsible for?
    • 1. Gas Exchange by diffusion
    • 2. pH balance
  2. What are the 3 parts of the nose that are involved with the respiratory system?
    • External nares (nostrils)
    • Vestibules with vibrassae (nose hairs)
    • Nasal cavity with conchae
  3. what are the vestibules with vibrassae used as?
    as a gross (large scale) filter
  4. What is the function of the chonchae in the nasal cavity?
    • Causes turbulence
    • *chonchae also called turbinates
  5. What is the nasal cavity lined with?
    ciliated, vascularized mucus membrane
  6. What are the 3 functions of the nasal cavity?
    • warms airflow before going into lungs
    • humidifies airflow before going into lungs
    • filters airflow
  7. What are the 4 main parts of the pharynx?
    • Internal nares
    • Nasopharynx
    • Oropharynx
    • Laryngopharynx
  8. What are the 2 parts of the nasopharynx?
    • Pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids)
    • Eustachian tube
  9. What are the 2 parts of the oropharynx?
    • Palatine tonsils
    • Lingual tonsils
  10. What does the laryngopharynx diverge into?
    The glottis and the esophagus
  11. What are the 3 functions of the pharynx?
    • Closes internal nares while swallowing
    • Reduces infection by tonsils
    • Produces vowel sounds
    • ----->consonants are made by mouth
  12. What is the larynx and what are the 4 parts of it?
    • The voice box
    • 1. Vocal folds (cords)
    • 2. Epiglottis
    • 3. Thyroid cartilage (adam's apple)
    • 4. Cricoid cartilage
  13. What does the epiglottis do?
    It closes the glottis while swallowing
  14. What is the trachea and what are it's 2 main features?
    • The windpipe
    • 1. Cartilaginous rings
    • 2. Ciliated, vascularized mucous membrane
  15. Describe the cartilaginous rings of the trachea
    • C-shaped
    • For structural support and to provide strength to airway
  16. Describe the mucous membrane of the trachea.  What is it used for?
    • Mucociliary escalatory--mucus is driven up
    • Same function as nasal cavity--warms, humidifies, and filters airflow
  17. What is the order of structures on the bronchial tree starting from the epiglottis down to the alveoli?
    • Epiglottis
    • Larynx
    • Trachea
    • Carina
    • I0 Bronchi
    • II0 Bronchi
    • III0 Bronchi
    • Bronchioles
    • Alveolar Duct
    • Alveoli
  18. What are the Alveoli used for?
    Air sacs for gas exchange
  19. At rest, what is the average rate of breathing?
    12-15 breaths/minute
  20. What is the percent of O2 and CO2 in inspired air?
    • 21% O2
    • 0.04% CO2
  21. What is the percent of O2 and CO2 in expired air?
    • 16% O2
    • 4% CO2
  22. What are the inspiratory muscles used for normal inspiration? What do they do?
    • External Intercostals---located between ribs; raises rib cage
    • Diaphragm---Dome shaped muscle beneath rib cage that flattens with contraction
  23. What are the 5 muscles needed for active/forced inspiration?
    • External intercostals
    • Scalenes
    • Diaphragm
    • Pectoralis minor
    • Sternocleidomastoid
  24. Describe what is going on during normal expiration.  Is there muscle contraction? What happens to rib cage and diaphragm?
    • No muscle contraction
    • Inspiration muscles relax
    • Rib cage settles down and diaphragm rises
    • Elastic recoil
  25. During active/forced expiration, what muscles are being used and what are they doing?
    • Internal intercostals--pull down rib cage
    • Abdominus rectus--pull in on abdomen viscera
    • Abdomen viscera pushes up on diaphragm
  26. What are the 4 mechanisms used to control breathing?
    • Medullary rhythmicity area
    • Pons
    • Central chemoreceptors
    • Peripheral chemorecptors
  27. Describe the inspiratory neurons in the medullary rhythmicity area
    • Stimulate inspiratory muscles
    • Inhibit expiratory neurons
    • Fatigue is about 2 secs.
  28. Describe the expiratory neurons in the medullary rhythmicity area
    • Inhibit inspiratory muscles and neurons
    • Elastic recoil
    • Fatigue is about 2 secs.
  29. What is the system in which the medullary rhythmicity area uses?  How does it work?
    • Cyclic self-excitation with reciprocal inhibition
    • The inspiratory and expiratory neurons act one after another in an alternating cycle
  30. What are the 2 parts of the pons used for breathing?  What do they do?
    • Apneustic area--inhalation
    • Pneumotaxic area--exhalation
  31. what is the system in which the pons use for breathing?
    Cyclic self-excitation with reciprocal inhibition
  32. What do the central chemoreceptors do for controlling breathing? where are they located?
    • located in medulla
    • monitor CO2 and H+ in CSF
  33. What do the peripheral chemoreceptors do for controlling breathing?  Where are they located?
    • Located in the aorta and carotid arteries
    • Monitor everything (O2, CO2, H+) in plasma
  34. Describe the O2 in blood.
    • 98.5% oxyhemoglobin
    • 1.5 % dissolved gas
  35. Describe the CO2 in blood.
    • 7% dissolved gas
    • 23% carbamino Hgb
    • 70% HCO3- (bicarbonate ion)
  36. Where in the body is CO2 high?  Is acidity, H+ and pH high or low here?
    • In tissues (everything except lungs)
    • high acidity and H+
    • low pH
  37. Where is CO2 low in the body? Is acidity, H+ and pH high or low here?
    • In lungs
    • Low acidity and H+
    • High pH
  38. What does O2/Hgb affinity vary with? Describe.
    • Varies with pH
    • when pH is high O2/ Hgb affinity  is high (in lungs)
    • when pH is low, O2/Hgb affinity is low (in tissues)
  39. How many liters is in the inspiratory reserve volume?
    about 3 liters
  40. What is the volume of the lungs at rest?  What is this volume called?
    • 0.5 liters
    • Tidal volume
  41. How many liters are in the expiratory reserve volume?
    1.2 liters
  42. How many liters are in the residual volume?
    1.2 liters
  43. What 3 lung volumes are included in the vital capacity volume?  How many liters is the vital capacity?
    • Inspiritaory reserve, tidal, and expiratory volume
    • About 4.7 liters
  44. What 2 lung volumes are included in the functional expiratory capacity?  How many liters is in this?
    • Expiratory reserve and residual volume
    • 2.4 liters
  45. The sum of what 2 things equals the total lung volume? What is the total lung volume?
    • Vital capacity plus functional expiratory capacity
    • About 6 liters
  46. What is the equation used to find the partial pressure of something?
    atmospheric pressure x ____ pressure
  47. What is the atmospheric pressure?  What is the standard elements of this "atmosphere"?
    • 760 mm Hg
    • At sea level and room temp.
  48. What is the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2)? What is the equation used to find this?
    • 160 mm Hgb
    • 760 x 0.21
  49. Describe the path of blood flow using the pulmonary vein, pulmonary artery and alveolus
    Pulmonary artery-->alveolous-->pulmonary vein
  50. What is the PO2 and PCO2 at the pulmonary artery?
    • PO2 : 40 mm
    • PCO2 : 45 mm
  51. What is the PO2 and PCO2 at the alveolus?
    • PO2 : 104 mm
    • PCO2 : 40 mm
  52. What is the PO2 and PCO2 at the pulmonary vein?
    • PO2 : 104 mm
    • PCO2 : 40 mm
  53. What is the pathway that air takes during inspiration from the atmosphere to the lungs? Know the reverse of this as well!
    • External nares (through vestibules with vibrassae)
    • Nasal cavity
    • Pharynx
    • Larynx
    • Trachea
    • Io Bronchi
    • IIo Bronchi
    • IIIo Bronchi
    • Bronchioles
    • Alveolar duct
    • Alveoli
    • Lungs
Card Set
Respiratory System