The major targets for an OD intervention:
- interpersonal relationships,
- group processes
- intergroup processes, and
- the total organization.
Refers to activities on the part of a consultant that help the client perceive, understand, and alter the processes occurring in the org that might be causing a problem.
4 of the most popular group interventions include:
- 1)the group diagnostic meeting,
- 2) the team-building meeting,
- 3) the role analysis technique (RAT), and
- 4) responsibility charting.
role analysis technique (RAT)
- The result of an effective RAT intervention should be the creation of well-written job descriptions that are commonly understood by all group members.
- Defines the requirements of a focal role; that is, the role being examined.
- This intervention basically involves 2 steps:(a) First step consists of the person in the focal role defining the essential functions of his or her job – what it entails, why it exists, and what its place is in achieving the org’s goals. The specific duties are listed on a chalkboard and discussed by the entire group. Responsibilities are added and deleted until the role incumbent and the group are satisfied with the description.(b) The second step consists of clarifying the expectations that the focal role person has of others. These expectations are likewise listed and discussed until the group and the role incumbent agree on them. Focus on 1 role at a time.
An intervention that helps to clarify who is responsible for which decisions and actions.
- The first step is to construct a matrix. The types of decisions and classes of actions that need to be taken are placed along the left side of the matrix, and the group members are listed across the top of the matrix, as shown in Exhibit 33 pg 54. 2)
- The second step is to determine how each actor should be involved in each of the decisions. Group members may be assigned to make any one of 4 possible responses to each decision.
- R: responsibility to initiate action
- A-V: right to approve or veto the decision
- S: providing support and resources(d)
- I: being informed about the decision
- If a group member is totally removed from a particular decision, such noninvolvement is indicated by a simple dash in that cell of the matrix.
Usually involve the entire org and are implemented throughout the entire company.
2 of the most widely known comprehensive interventions include:
survey feedback and structural interventions.
Survey feedback interventions consists of 2 major activities:
- 1st step is administering the attitude survey to assess the opinions of employees.
- 2nd step is reporting this data back to members of the org, analyzing the survey results, and using the results to design corrective actions.
Knowledge management programs
Designed to help the members of a company share relevant info among each other and from external sources on an ongoing basis.
Total Quality Management (TQM) is characterized by 3 primary prinicples:
- doing things right the first time,
- striving for continuous improvement, and
- being responsive to the interests of customers.
Statistical process control (SPC)
A popular TQM technique that is used to improve quality. SPC involves carefully measuring the production process and using the data to identify problems and to monitor quality improvement.