a policy of creating strategic alliances in order to check the expansion of a hostile power or ideology or to force it to negotiate pecefully
First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.
Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.
Successful effort by the United States and Britain to ship by air 2.3 million tons of supplies to the residents of the Western-controlled sectors of Berlin from June 1948 to May 1949, in response to a Soviet blockade of all land and canal routes to the divided city.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
General Douglas MacArthur
Commander of the UN forces at the beginning of the Korean War, however President Harry Truman removed him from his command after MacArthur expressed a desire to bomb Chinese bases in Manchuria.
a 1947 law giving the president power to halt major strikes by seeking a court injunction and permitting states to forbid requirements in labor contracts that force workers to join a union.
An economic extension of the New Deal proposed by Harry Truman that called for higher minimum wage, housing and full employment. It led only to the Housing Act of 1949 and the Social Security Act of 1950 due to opposition in congress.
House Un-American Activities Committee
Committee in the House of Representatives founded on a temporary basis in 1938 to monitor activities of foreign agents. Made a standing committee in 1945. During World War II it investigated pro-fascist groups, but after the war it turned to investigating alleged communists. From 1947-1949, it conducted a series of sensational investigations into supposed communist infiltration of the U.S. government and Hollywood film industry.
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
National Interstate and Defense Highway Act
the federal govt is going to build massive amounts of highways. With the first it will build over 37,000 miles, with the second it will build 42,000. This is being done largely for military reasons. With the cold war starting at any time, they need a way to move the troops
Sputnik First artificial Earth satellite
it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
National Aeronautic and Space Administration - A US government agency in charge of the space program
Mutually assured destruction
a doctrine of military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender.[
Term applied to a group of "developing" or "underdeveloped" countries who professed nonalignment during the Cold War.
the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control
Created International Monetary Fund (IMF) to stabilize currency and the World Bank to invest in projs globally to stimulate economic growth (Presidential exertion of US power on an international scale)
Federal Housing Authority
An organization set up by Roosevelt to speed economic recovery and create better homes. The FHA was to stimulate the building industry by small loans to householders, both for improving their dwellings and for completing new ones. It proved to be one of the most popular agencies of the Roosevelt era. (p 788)
In 1947, William Levitt used mass production techniques to build inexpensive homes in surburban New York to help relieve the postwar housing shortage.
Levittown became a symbol of the movement to the suburbs in the years after WWII.
The southern and southwestern states, from the Carolinas to California, characterized by warm climate and recently, rapid population growth
developed the polio vaccine
The Feminine Mystique
written by Betty Friedan, journalist and mother of three children; described the problems of middle-class American women and the fact that women were being denied equality with men; said that women were kept from reaching their full human capacities
this non-conformist beatnik writer from Lowell, MA wrote "On the Round", American Novelist and poet.
Brown v. Board of Education
court found that segregation was a violation of the Equal Protection clause "separate but equal" has no place
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
This, signed by 101 members of congress in 1956, condemned the Supreme Court decision of Brown v Board of Education in 1954 as an abuse of power, and in those states desegregation did not occur
Montgomery Bus Boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
An organization founded by MLK Jr., to direct the crusade against segregation. Its weapon was passive resistance that stressed nonviolence and love, and its tactic direct, though peaceful, confrontation.
black students politely order food from restraunt, not served, sat in place for days & days, gathering supporters.
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee
SNCC was a student based civil rights organization. Their actions, such as sit-ins, helped pass civil right laws.