Respiratory System

  1. Functions of the respiratory system
    • distribute air
    • exchange gas (supply cells with O2, remove CO2)
  2. Respiration
    oxygen obtained from environment is delivered to cells
  3. Phases of respiration
    • pulmonary ventilation
    • external respiration
    • internal respiration
  4. pulmonary ventilation
    exchange of gases between environment and lungs (alveoli) by breathing (inhalation and exhalation)
  5. external respiration
    exchange of gases between lungs and blood (oxygen diffuses from alveoli to surrounding blood capillaries/carbon dioxide diffuses from surrounding blood capillaries to alveoli)
  6. internal respiration
    exchange of gases between blood and cells/tissues (oxygen diffuses from blood capillaries to body cells/carbon dioxide diffuses from body cells to blood capillaries)
  7. cellular respiration
    use of oxygen by cell to catabolize nutrients and release energy; produces carbon dioxide as a waste
  8. the upper respiratory tract includes:
    • nasal cavities
    • pharynx
    • larynx
    • sinuses
  9. the lower respiratory tract includes:
    • trachea
    • bronchi
    • lungs
    • bronchioles
    • alveoli
  10. Nostrils/nares
    openings in the nasal cavity
  11. Nasal Septum
    cartilage tissue that divides nasal cavities
  12. three projections in the nasal cavity that increase surface area
  13. pharynx
    • receives air from nasal and oral cavity
    • receives food and water from oral cavity
  14. eustachian tube
    connects ears to pharynx
  15. three divisions of the pharynx
    • nasopharynx
    • oropharynx
    • laryngopharynx
  16. larynx
    voice box
  17. cartilage of the larynx forms what?
    Adam's apple
  18. glottis
    opening between vocal cords that closes with swallowing
  19. epiglottis
    leaf-shaped cartilage that covers opening to larynx with swallowing, preventing food and liquids from entering respiratory tract
  20. sinuses
    • small cavities in skull
    • lined with mucous membrane
    • lighten the weight of the skull
    • give resonance quality to voice
  21. sinusitis
    sinus infection
  22. frontal sinus
  23. maxillary sinus
    behind cheek
  24. ethmoid sinus
    between eyes
  25. sphenoid sinus
    behind eyes
  26. trachea
    wind pipe
  27. divisions of bronchi
    • primary bronchi
    • secondary bronchi
    • tertiary bronchi
    • bronchioles terminal bronchioles
  28. primary bronchi
    first two divisions at distal end of trachea that branch to enter each lung at notch called hilum
  29. secondary bronchi
    branch from primary bronchi to each lobe of lung
  30. tertiary bronchi
    branch from secondary bronchi
  31. bronchioles
    branch from tertiary bronchi; no cartilage walls; have smooth muscle
  32. terminal bronchioles
    branch from bronchioles
  33. alveoli
    • air sacs at end of terminal bronchioles
    • where diffusion of O2 and CO2 occurs
    • produce surfactant
  34. What does surfactant do?
    prevent collapse of alveoli
  35. where does diffusion of O2 and CO2 occur?
  36. lungs
    • where gas diffusion takes place
    • contain bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli
    • in thoracic cavity
  37. How many lobes do the lungs have?
    two left lobes and three right lobes
  38. why are there only two lobes on the left side of the lung and three on the right?
    the heart sits on the left side
  39. diaphragm
    separates thoracic and abdominal cavities
  40. mediastinum
    cavity between two pleural cavities that contain heart, large blood vessels, lymph nodes, esophagus, and trachea
  41. membranes of respiratory tract are:
    mucosal and ciliated
  42. hemothorax
    blood accumulation in the pleural space
  43. hydrothorax
    water accumulation in the pleural space
  44. pneumothorax
    air accumulation in the pleural space
  45. phases of pulmonary respiration
    • inhalation/inspiration
    • exhalation/expiration
  46. active phase of respiration
  47. What happens during inhalation/expiration?
    • air is drawn into lungs
    • diaphragm contracts and drops down towards abdominal cavity to enlarge thoracic cavity
    • lung tissue expands
    • internal and external intercostals contract pulling rib case up and out
  48. Passive phase of respiration
  49. what happens during exhalation/expiration?
    • air is expelled from the lungs
    • diaphragm relaxes
    • intercostals relax
  50. Oxygen
    gas required by cells for catabolism of nutrients and energy production that must be continually supplied by respiratory system
  51. carbon dioxide
    gas that is a waste product of cell metabolism that must be continually removed by respiratory system
  52. transportation of oxygen
    carried towards body cells/tissues in blood (hemoglobin molecule on RBC)
  53. transportation of carbon dioxide
    carried away from the body cells/tissues in blood (hemoglobin molecule on RBC)
  54. regulation respiration
    • involuntary control always overrides voluntary control
    • chemoreceptors in carotid and aortic bodies respond to decreasing oxygen levels in circulating blood
  55. Hypercapnia
    Chemoreceptors near medulla respond to increasing carbon dioxide levels in circulating blood
  56. hypoxemia
    • Chemoreceptors in carotid and aortic bodies respond to decreasing oxygen levels in circulating
    • blood
  57. What part of the brain involuntarily controls respiration
  58. what part of the brain voluntarily controls respiration?
    cerebral cortex
  59. Two types of abnormal ventilation
    • hyperventilation
    • hypoventilation
  60. hyperventilation
    • increased air enters alveoli as both rate and depth increases
    • Lungs take in too much oxygen and eliminate too much carbon
  61. hypoventilation
    decreased air enters alveoli
  62. alkalosis
    lungs take in too much oxygen and eliminate too much carbon dioxide making blood alkaline
  63. acidosis
    Carbon dioxide builds up in blood making blood acidic
  64. Ranges of respirations
    • infants (40+/min)
    • children (20-40/min)
    • adults (12-20/min)
  65. auscultation
    listening to lungs with stethoscope (assesses breathing quality rather than rate)
  66. abnormal breathing sounds
    rales, rhonchi, wheezing, stridor
  67. rales
    abnormal musical sounds heard on inspiration; often called “crackles”
  68. rhonchi
    rattling sounds in bronchi due to obstruction or fluid; may be clear with coughing
  69. wheezing
    whistling or musical sound heard during breathing that may indicate partially blocked or narrowed airway (asthma)
  70. stridor
    high pitched sound on inspiration
  71. eupnea
    normal breathing
  72. dyspnea
    difficulty breathing (shortness of breath, painful or labored breathing)
  73. orthopnea
    difficulty breathing while lying down
  74. apnea
    temporary cessation of breathing
  75. Cheyne-stokes respirations
    variation in breathing pattern with alternating periods of apnea and hyperventilation (critical illness)
  76. bradypnea
    decreased rate of breathing
  77. tachypnea
    increased rate of breathing (exercise/disease)
  78. sputum
    fluid or secretions coughed up from lungs
  79. hemoptysis
    coughing up blood
  80. hypoxemia
    lower than normal oxygen in arterial blood
  81. hypoxia
    lower than normal oxygen in tissues
  82. cyanosis
    bluish discoloration of skin, nails, or mucous membranes caused by not enough oxygen
  83. suffocation
    cessation of respirations, often due to mechanical obstruction
  84. anoxia
    total lack of oxygen
  85. respiratory arrest
    failure to resume breathing following period of apnea
  86. Pulmonary function tests/lung function tests
    group of tests that measure how well lungs inhale and exhale air/how efficiently lungs transfer gases (CO2 and O2) in blood
  87. spirometry
    patient breathes into mouthpiece connected to instrument called spirometer; records amount and rate of air patient breathes in and out over a period of time
Card Set
Respiratory System
First section