Immunology Test 4

  1. Major subdivisions of the adaptive immune system
    • Humoral
    • Antigen-Specific: B-cells and their antibodies
    • Antigen-Non-Specific: PMNs and complement (acutely) and macrophages and complement (chronically)
    • Cellular
    • Antigen-Specific: T-cells
    • Antigen-Non-Specific: Macrophages
  2. Neutralization
    • Occurs through antibodies
    • Works on some viruses and some obligate intracellular bacteria (Rickettsia)
  3. Antibody opsonization
    • Coating of pathogen with antibodies in preparation for phagocytosis by PMNs and macrophages
    • Works on extracellular bacteria
  4. Macrophages activated by CD4 T cells
    Works on most facultative (optional) intracellular bacteria, fungi, protozoa, other parasites, and some viruses
  5. CD8 T cells
    Works on a few bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes) and some viruses
  6. Vaccination for exotoxins
    • Normally, vaccination is needed to protect against exotoxins, which are neutralized by antibodies
    • Vaccines for toxins that are too toxic to stimulate immune responses (such as diptheria, tetanus, and pertussis) often use toxoids, which are biologically inactivated toxins that retain immunogenicity
  7. Superantigen examples
    • These toxins target the immune system to prevent antibody formation
    • Staphylococcus aureus has Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) with A and X serotypes
    • Streptococcus pyrogenes has Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (SPEs) that include A-C, G-L, streptococcal superantigen, and streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin Z
    • Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) is another superantigen
  8. Activation of T cells by antigen versus superantigen
    • Typical antigens activate about 1/10,000 T cells
    • Superantigens can activate up to half of all T cells, causing massive cytokine release and TSS
    • Image Upload 1
  9. IVIG
Card Set
Immunology Test 4
Flashcards for immunology test 4