1. What is the bodys primary focus in the first decade for a girl?
    primary focus on its own growth and development
  2. What is the bodys primary focus after mentruation begins?
    • body begins to offer ova for reproduction
    • *releases egg every month ready to fertilize
  3. What is fertilization?
    union of egg spermatozoon to zygote
  4. healthful diet before conception- 2 things to avoid in your diet
    • -avoid teratogens
    • *alcohol and drugs

    • -avoid other substances
    • *caffeine, medications, herbs, suppls.
  5. healthful diet before conception- What range should the BMI be in?
    19.8 and 26.0 kg
  6. 2 nutrition related disorder during pregnancy.
    -gestational diabetes

  7. When do neural tube defects develop?
    first few weeks
  8. How long does a full term pregnancy last?
    38 to 42 weeks
  9. When is first trimester?
    conception to week 13
  10. When is the second trimester?
    week 14 to week 27
  11. when is the third trimester?
    week 28 to week 40
  12. When is the embryonic stage?
    day 15 to week 8
  13. After what week is the developing baby called a fetus?
    after week 8
  14. What happens in the first trimester? (2)
    -zygote travels through fallopian tube and implants in wall of uterus

    -development of organs, limb buds, facial features, and placenta
  15. What trimester are embryos extremely vulnerable to teratogens?
    during the first trimester
  16. Placenta development and function-Do maternal and fetus blood ever intemingle? Why or why not?
    no, the mothers blood stays in circulatory system while the fetus blood never leaves the fetal vessels
  17. Placenta development and function- Where does the exchange of materials take place between the mother and fetus?
    within the sponge-like endometrium. 
  18. What three things does a placenta mimic the functions of that the fetus will have after birth?

    -gastrointestinal tract

  19. What three functions does the placenta provide the fetus with? (3)


    -excretory functions
  20. What does placenta use for fuel?
    glucose, it provides glucose to the fetus
  21. Placenta development and function-What does the increase of blood flow influence?
    the rate of oxygen and nutrient delivery and waste exchange
  22. Placenta development and function- water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and electrolytes cross the placenta via..
    passive diffusion
  23. Placenta development and function- Glucose, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and other nutrients cross the placenta by..
    active transport
  24. 2 cahracteristics of 2nd trimeester
    -continued development of organ systems

    -growth from approximately 3 inches to over one foot long by the end of the second trimester
  25. What trimester does the fetus gain 3 quarters of its weight?
    3rd trimester
  26. characterisitcs of thrid trimester (3)
    -time for considerable growth

    -brain growth is also extensive

    -lungs become fully mature

    ***well balanced diet is essential
  27. What does the fetal-origins hypothesis of later disease risk state?
    states that exposure to adverse nutritional and other conditions during critical periods of growth can permanently affect body structures and functions

    ***may predispose people to having CVD, among other problems
  28. What are preterm babies?
    babies that were born before 38 weeks and may be low birth weight babies

    **nutrition plays a role in this condition
  29. What does small for gestational age indicate?
    babies born at term but weigh less than would be expected for their gestational age

    ***nutrition plays a role in this condition
  30. What is low birth weight?
    any baby born weighing less than 5.5 pounds

    ***increased risks of infections, learning disabilities, impaired physical development, and death in first year
  31. An undernourished mother is more likely to...
    give birth to a low birth weight baby
  32. Women who do not gain enough weight during pregnancy are at risk of..
    having a low birth weight baby
  33. the outcome of women who do not gain enough weight during pregnancy (3)
    -compromises fertility

    -increases chance of premature delivery and intrauterine growth retardation

    -apgar scores are often low
  34. why should women diet during pregnancy?
    may deprive the fetus of critical nutrients
  35. risks of Children born from obese women (6)

    -low apgar scores

    -shoulder dystocia

    -childhood obesity

    -difficulty regulating blood sugar after delivery

    -perinatal mortality due to greater difficulty delivering
  36. How much weight gain should normal BMI gain during pregnancy?
    25-35 pounds
  37. How much weight should underweight women gain during preganancy?
  38. How much weight should overweight women gain during pregnancy?
  39. How much should obese women gain during pregnancy?
    no more than 15
  40. What is suggested weight gained for having a single baby?
    25-35 pounds
  41. What is suggested weight gained for having twins?
    35-45 pounds
  42. What is suggested weight gained for having triplets?
    at least 45 pounds
  43. (WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY) What is the typical weigh gain during pregnancy for breast size?
    2 pounds increase
  44. (WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY) What is the typical weigh gain during pregnancy for mother fluid volume?
    4 pounds
  45. (WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY) What is the typical weigh gain during pregnancy for placenta?
    1.5 pounds
  46. (WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY) What is the typical weigh gain during pregnancy for increase in blood supply to the placenta?
    4 pounds
  47. (WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY) What is the typical weigh gain during pregnancy for amniotic fluid?
    2 pounds
  48. (WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY) What is the typical weigh gain during pregnancy for infant at birth?
    7.5 pounds
  49. (WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY) What is the typical weigh gain during pregnancy for increase in size of uterus and supporting muscles?
    2 pounds
  50. (WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY) What is the typical weigh gain during pregnancy for mothers necessary fat stores?
    7 pounds
  51. 3 things pregnant women should pay attention to?


  52. How many additional calories may be required to consume in second and thrid trimester?
    300-450 kcal a day
  53. What should be the protein intake for pregnant moms?
    1.1 grams per day per kg body weight

    ***an additional 25 grams per day of protein
  54. At least how many grams of carbs should be consumed during pregnancy? why?
    175 g per day because glucose is the preferred food source of a fetus
  55. Is fat intake going to change during pregnancy?
    no, it should stay about the same
  56. Most important type of fat to consume during pregnant? (2)
    - rich sources of docosahexaenoic acid

    -omega 3 polyunsatured fatty acid
  57. 10 micros that are most critical during pregnancy

    -vitamin b12

    -vitamin C

    -vitamin A

    -vitamin D





  58. Why is folate important during pregnancy? (2)
    -required for cell division

    -critical in the first 28 days for development of the neural tube which become the brain and spinal cord
  59. Why is vitamin b12 important during pregnancy?
    regenerates the active form of folate
  60. Why is vitamin C important during pregnancy?
    -production of collagen (connective tissue)
  61. What happens if there is a deficiency in vitamin C consumption during pregnancy?
    in elevated risk for preterm births and preeclampsia
  62. Is beta carotene associated with brith defects during pregnancy?
  63. Is supplementation of vitamin A recommended during pregnancy?
    no, toxicity risk
  64. What can excess of vitamin A cause during pregnancy?
    abnormalities in fetal kidneys and nervous system
  65. BY how much should vitamin A be increased during pregnancy?
    10 percent
  66. What can happen from excessive intake of vitamin D during pregnancy?
    causes developmental disabilities in newborns
  67. When is supplementation advised for vitamin D during pregnancy?
    if exposure to sunlight or milk consumption is low
  68. Does the AI increase for vitamin D during pregnancy?
  69. Efficiency of calcium absoprtion during pregnancy
    calcium absorption is more efficient during pregnancy
  70. By how much percent is teh need for iron increased during pregnancy? why?
    by 50 percent because the need for red blood cells increases.
  71. what can happen if the mother has iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy? (3)
    -preterm delivery

    -low birht weight

    -fetal growth restriction
  72. When does the fetal need during pregnancy for iron increased?
    third trimester
  73. Is iron deficiency anemia common during pregnancy?
  74. Why is zinc important during pregnancy?
    critical for making proteins, DNA, RNA
  75. When pregnant How much percent increase does zinc require?
    38 percent increase
  76. when pregnant Do sodium needs increase?
    no it stays the same
  77. When pregnant does the need for iodine increase?
    yes, significantly

    ***can be obtained from iodized salt
Card Set
life cycle one