Research is a systematic goal oriented study, of phenomena.It aims to avail information that can the basis for generalizations,principles, theories, laws…
Characteristics of research
- Systematic process
- Empirical evidence
- Empirical tests
- Universally applicable
- Basic concepts
- Ethical neutrality
- Transparent methodology
- Goal oriented
- Formulation of laws, generalizations, theories
Follows laid down scientific procedure. To ensure there’s objectivity, in a study of phenomena.
Empirical tests are carried out to rule out any other possibilities, done in controlled tests. E.g. in a village or raring of chickens.
Methodologies and knowledge gained must be replicable to the same problem in a different setting.
Gotten from thorough and rigorous study of a phenomenon to draw inference, or develop generalization.
Should be verifiable by other studies.
Methodology, finding can used in other locations
Universal concepts to develop standardization, consistent in definition, understanding or interpretation.
Researchers detach themselves from any personal preferences,opinions or prejudices.
To ensure there’s objectivity and replication in other studies.
*All research is tentative until other researchers concur.*
Aims to meet specific goals, in a given time frame.
*Due to limited resources and time. It is objective/critical and devoid of all forms of prejudices*
Formulation of laws, generalizations, theories
Empirical tests done to add knowledge, improve laws,theories etc.
Follows specific rules of logic, consistent with known facts.
*Gives us the means to make known the unknown among us.*
Of data made as clear as possible to ensure objectivity.
Process of research
- Helps with decision making
- Gain information/knowledge
- Improve products
- Illiteracy (Population and society to research)
- Lack of training
Qualities of a Good Researcher
- Diligence/Prudence *Documentation of method.*
- Honesty *ethical, averse to plagiarism.*
- Humility *Intellectual humility when he gets it wrong.*
- Through *Attention to detail.*
- Noble *Driven to find facts, rather than money.*
- Transparent *Publish method of research.*
Types of Research
- Basic (Pure)
- Non Experimental
This is the collection and analysis of numerical data in their natural setting (no manipulation)
This is the collection and analysis of text data in their natural setting (no manipulation)
Not meant for specific problem. Carried out, out of curiosity to gain knowledge.
- Goal oriented, tailored to a specific area to solve a problem.
- *Aims to refine knowledge, improve a product that can be applied to real life situations.*
Application of scientific means in controlled setting, in manipulation of samples.
involves observing and measuring things as they are. Naturalistic observation, interview, survey, case history, and psychometric
Used to answer the what, why and where question in research
Used to answer the HOW question, and indicate how it happened.
Applied research into the feasibility, formulation,implementation and review of policy in a given context.
Applied computerized research that manipulates variables using quantitative models/techniques, to examine relationships between one or more variables.
Types of data collection
- Categorized on the basis of type of data sought.
- Nature of research
- Non Experimental
Ways to answer QUESTIONS asked
Technique of coming to the truth through inductive or deductive reason.
Known to unknown
*the conclusion is reached from specific examples.*
*also known as induction or informally "bottom-up" logic, is a kind of reasoning that constructs or evaluates general propositions that are derived from specific examples.*
General to specific
*Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic or logical deduction or, informally, "top-down" logic, is the process of reasoning from one or more general statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.
Appealing to Authority
Consulting experts or experienced people in a field of study to for their answers.
Limitations of appealing to authority
- Lacks universality
- Bounded rationality
Appealing to Faith
Using religion as an avenue of gaining knowledge
Limitations appealing to faith
- Lacks facts
- Blind faith
- Lack of empirical evidence
Systematic and scientific method of collecting and analyzing data to come up with inferences.
*Satisfies all characteristics of research.*
Contingent factors in research is
Factors to consider before or while carrying out research.
The act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true.
*The act of reasoning from factual knowledge or evidence.*
Contingent factors in research
- Time constraint
- Purpose (Why)
- Nature (Type)
- Funding (Money)
- Unit of analysis (Who/What)
- Characteristics of the population
- Infrastructure (Accommodation, transport)
- Literacy (regarding research) level of the population
- Cover objectives
- Be thorough
- Specific design
- Within budget
Reasons for research
Scientific or not.
*look at the problem, objectives,literature review, design and report.*
Budget constraints must be considered.
Unit of analysis (Who/What)
Subjects of research
Characteristics of the population
- Language spoken,
- Family type
- Household type
Guild lines for conducting successful research
- Clear concept and definition of problem being investigated
- Proper formulation of objectives and design
- Start early: making contacts, literature review
- Communicate: intention of data collection
- Request: respondents for responses do not force.
- Introduce yourself: through referees, letter of introduction
- Avoid assumptions: from respondents, physical presence is important
- Patience: with uncooperative respondents
- Preparation: organization is important. Have all necessities.