Wild Fire 4-6-13 Part 1

  1. What is the foundation that all other firefighting principles are built on? 1
  2. Fitness has 2 aspects? 2
    Aerobic and muscular
  3. What is a prime factor in controlling fatigue? 3
    Sleep, most firefighters can work hard for 24 to 36 hours with short sleep or rest rates.
  4. Who?s responsible for conducting themselves in a safe manner? 3
    Every Firefighter
  5. To perform well, how much sleep should you get for every 2 hours of work? 3
    1 hour
  6. When on shift, how often should you drink? 5
    Drink once every hour
  7. What does too much CO exposure cause? 5
    Headache fatigue and drowsiness
  8. During a wildland incident how many calories per shift do you need? 6
    5000-6000 calories
  9. The best policy regarding getting dressed out for a wildland fire? 7
    Is not to get on the engine until you were properly dressed
  10. What type of socks are recommended? 8
    Cotton, wool or part wool socks
  11. When is the only time a firefighter should not be wearing glove? 9
    Is when they are feeling for hot spots while overhauling or mopping up.
  12. What is the key to the proper use of a shelter? 10
    Don't wait until it is too late to deploy it.
  13. If entrapment seems likely, attempt to escape, but only if you're certain you will make it to safety.  If there is doubt that you can escape what should you do? 10 TQ
    Deploy your shelter.  When it is time to deploy your shelter, there is no time to read the instructions. 
  14. Fire shelters will reflect what percent of radiant heat? 10
  15. Can the cab of the engine can be used for protection?10
    Yes, but understand the limitations
  16. In heavy fuels, what should the engine be used for ? 13
    As a shield, deploy on the ground away from where the fire is coming.
  17. Are Fire orders absolute or recommendations? 15
  18. What are the 3 most common reasons why we routinely violate the 10 Fire Orders? 16.
    Ignorance, Machismo, Apathy
  19. Weather is very influential on the intensity of fire behavior and how it spreads.  Which primary weather factor is the most influential? 17 TQ
  20. What % slope will the rate of fire spread double and then what % will it double again? 17
    The rate of spread doubles at 30% and then doubles again at 55%
  21. What time of day do wildland fires burn the hottest and most intense? 20
    Between 10 AM and 5 PM
  22. What does a wildland fires spreading uphill resemble? 31
    A wind driven fire
  23. What is the operational component of the 10 Standard Firefighting Orders.  32 TQ
  24. What are the 4 primary elements of L A C E S? 32 TQ
    •  lookouts
    •  communications
    •  escape routes
    •  safety zones
    • ?..the 5th element was added later A for Awareness
  25. What has to be large enough to protect firefighters under worse than predicted fire behavior and have to be scouted by experienced people, to ensure they will work in an emergency? 37
    Safety Zones
  26. What is 1 of the most reliable safety zones? 37
    In ?the black?, as long as there is no canopy that can support a re-burn
  27. When are firefighter exposed to the most toxic smoke? 39
    During mop-up, when the fire is smoldering.
  28. How far apart should crewmember walk on a Fireline? 39(figure 1.19)
    at least 10 feet apart and double it, if you are swinging things
  29. What are the 4 situations that will worsen a snag or dead tree problem? 41
    • A strong wind is blowing.
    • Steep slopes.
    • Working at night.
    • Working in a diseased or bug-kill area.
  30. What is one of the biggest killers of wildland firefighters?  42 TQ
  31. When can you consider the power pole line safe? 46
    only when the line is cut from the poll by a power company representative
  32. In heavy smoke how far away should you stay from powerlines? 47
    100 feet
  33. How far away from high-voltage towers and pulled structures should you work?  47
    35 feet
  34. What should you do with Propane tanks with fire enpinging on them? 48
    Keep them cool if you can.
  35. What should you do with Propane tanks that are venting on a fire? 48
    Let it burn, but move some distance away
  36. What are the five basic communication responsibilities?  Page 52
    • Briefings
    • Debriefing
    • Warnings
    • Acknowledge messages
    • Questions
  37. The gathering of information by observation or having it reported to you.  Is known as?  53
    Situational Awareness
  38. What is 1 of the best ways to learn is from one?s actions-whether their right or wrong? 56
    Is a post fire review
  39. What is the primary driving force behind the changes in fire behavior?  57
    The weather
  40. What are the 4 weather factors that can affect the start and spread of wildland fires?  Page 58
    • Wind,
    • Relative humidity
    • Temperature
    • Precipitation
  41. All of the weather that will impact your fire is within how many miles of the surface of the earth? 58
    10 miles
  42. During a wildland firefighting , what the 2 most important components of the atmosphere? 59
    Oxygen and water vapor
  43. Atmospheric pressure exerts how much pressure per 1 inch square? 59
    About 14.7 pounds. This is equal to a 29.92 inch column of mercury
  44. On average what percent of the suns energy reaches the surface? 60
  45. What is the ultimate source of all weather. 60
    The power of the sun
  46. What is the hottest part of the day? 62
    Between 2 and 4 PM
  47. How much of the solar radiation absorbed by the earth is radiated back into the atmosphere?   63
    Approximately 30%
  48. What normally causes the wind to shift direction? 64
    The passage of a weather front
  49. What has the greatest impact on fire behavior of any of the weather factors?  PG 64
  50. These are the winds that are reported in daily weather forecasts.  TQ PG 65
    General winds
  51. What kind of winds affect a large area's? 65
    General winds
  52. What type of winds are produced by local terrain? 65
    Local winds
  53. What type of winds are measured 20 feet above the ground? 65
    Surface winds
  54. What type of winds are downslope and may reach 50 to 70 mph? 65
    Foehn winds
  55. What is uneven heating which creates atmospheric pressure differences called? 67
    Pressure gradients. 67
  56. What creates winds? 67
    A high-pressure moving towards a low pressure area
  57. A good rule of thumb: if you have your back to the wind, where are the low and high pressures? 67
    Low pressure is to your left and high pressure is to your right
  58. What direction do high-pressure areas turn? 68
  59. What direction do low-pressure areas turn? 68
  60. When the sea breezes become the strongest?  Page 70
    In the late afternoon
  61. What are slope winds mainly influenced by?  71
    • Aspect
    • Time of year
    • Steepness of slope 
    • Current weather conditions.
  62. What are the 4 Problem wind conditions that are specially dangerous to firefighters?
    • Cold front winds
    • Foehn or gravity winds
    • Winds of associated with thunderstorms
    • Whirlwinds, also referred to as dust-devils or firewhirls
  63. What is a warm, dry wind that occurs when air spills over high elevations and moves downhill?  Page 73
    Foehn winds or gravity wind
  64. How far can of thunderstorms effect extend from the actual storm?  Page 75
    25 to 30 miles
  65. What is the life expectancy of a thunderstorm? 75
    Less than 12 hours
  66. What are the indicators that a thunderstorm is mature and the downdraft may become a serious concern?  Page 75
    • The base of the cloud begins to roll on the downwind side
    • Virga begins to hang under the darkened, ragged cloud base
    • A dust cloud can be seen on the ground as the first gusts of wind reach the surface
  67. Why are Whirl winds and dust-devils common in areas that just burned over? 77
    The black ash bed is a better absorber of solar radiation, thus encouraging local heating
  68. One indicators that a wave action is occurring is the presence of an indicator cloud called? 78
    Altocumulus lenticular.
  69. What type of turbulence causes low-level winds to become dusty and erratic? 79
    Thermal turbulence
  70. These are the winds that are going to carry burning embers to other locations? 80
    Mid flame winds
  71. What is the ratio of the amount of water vapor present in the air compared to the greatness amount possible at the same temperature? 81
    Relative humidity
  72. How many degrees in temperature does it take to make the relative humidity drop by about one-half?  TQ 83
  73. If the dew point temperature is decreasing over time what should you be concerned about?  84
    The air is becoming drier, and this change may impact fire behavior
  74. What is defined as the change in temperature caused by a change in altitude?  87
    Lapse rate or adiabatic lapse rate
  75. What does stable air resist?  Page 87
    Vertical movement
  76. What is defined as the resistance of the atmosphere to vertical movement? 89
    Atmospheric stability
  77. What determines the stability of air? 90
    Vertical movement
  78. What 4 things can cause unstable air to intensify fire behavior by increasing: TQ 90
    • The chance of dust-devils and fire whirls
    • The potential for gusty surface winds
    • The Heights and strength of convection columns
    • The chance of spot fires
  79. What is the percentage of large fires that occur when the Haines index was at 6?  TQ 91
  80. What is the name of the index that is a measure of air stability?  92
    The Haines index
  81. When do inversion layers usually break down?  93
    Before noon
  82. When do inversion layers typically weekend? 93
    After sunrise
  83. If an inversion layer exists, how often should weather be monitored? 94
  84. A marine inversion layer along with Santa Ana winds will cause the winds to do what? 94
    Shift 180° every few minutes
  85. What is a thermal belt and what happens to the fire in that area? 95
    It is warmer temperatures sandwiched between cooler air and the fire burns more intensely
  86. What can hold smoke in a wide area for days and even weeks and prevent nighttime relative humidity recovery. Therefore, fuels in the area will become much drier than normal? 95
    Subsidence inversion layers
  87. Cumulonimbus (Thunderclouds) Indicate what? 96
    Unstable air with winds up to 60 mph
  88. What causes most clouds to form? 96
    A rising air mass cools to the point of saturation
  89. This cloud formation can occur individually as air mass thunderstorms or as a line or wall of thunderstorms associated with the cloud front.  TQ 97
  90. What may produce strong, gusty winds, sometimes gusting to as much as 60 miles per hour?  TQ 97
  91. What clouds are formed when the tops of thunderstorms are blown off by strong winds? 97
    Cirrostratus clouds
  92. What clouds are an indicator of stable air. 98
    Stratus clouds
  93. What are the 4 ways that thunderstorms are formed?  TQ 99
    • Thermal lifting
    • Orographic lifting
    • Frontal lifting
    • Convergence lifting
  94. Air that is forced up by mountains and form clouds is called what? 99
    Orographic lifting
  95. What is heated air rising forming thunderstorms called? 99
    Thermal lifting
Card Set
Wild Fire 4-6-13 Part 1