neuroexam 2

  1. What are the major subdivisions of the brainstem?
    Midbrain, Pons, Medulla
  2. What are the landmarks for the major brainstem division?
    Midbrain:  caudal to mammillary bodies, rostral to superior pontine sulcus

    Pons:  between superior and inferior pontine sulcus

    Medulla:  caudal to inferior pontine sulcus
  3. What are the landmarks visible from a dorsal view of the brain stem?
    Midbrain:  Tectum (superior and inferior colliculi)

    Pons:  Cerebellar penducles, 4th ventricle (if cerebellum is removed)

    Medulla:  4th ventricle, F. Gracilis & Cuneatus
  4. Brainstem Contents:

    Cranial Nerve Nuclei, Cerebellar circuitry, Descending Pathways, Ascending Pathways, Other... give specific examples of each
    • Sensory, Motor
    • All three cerebellar penducles, pontine nuclei, inferior olive
    • Corticospinal tract, corticobulbar tract, upper motor neurons (reticular formation, vestibular nuclei, superior colliculus)
    • N. Gracilis & Cuneatus, Medial Lemniscus, ALS, trigeminothalamics
    • Substantia nigra, MLF, reticular formation (pain modulation, sleep cycle, respiration, cardiovascular)
  5. How can cranial nerve lesions be localized?
    Symptoms specific to cranial nerve nuclei, in combination with those from ascending/descending pathway damage, will localize the lesion to a specific brainstem level
  6. What are the points of exit/entrance of cranial nerves III-XII?
    Midbrain:  III, IV

    Mid-pons:  V

    Pons-Medulla Junction:  VI-VIII

    Medulla:  IX-XII
  7. Location of cranial nerve nuclie:
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neuroexam 2
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