1. Which Article of the Constitution created the federal judiciary?
    Article III
  2. According to Article II, which of the following must confirm all federal judges?
  3. The __________ Act of 1789 established the basic three-tiered structure of the federal court system.
  4. How many justices currently serve on the Supreme Court?
  5. In which of the following cases did the Supreme Court first claim the right of judicial review?
    Marbury v. Madison
  6. In which court do cases generally begin?
  7. When a case is granted review in an appellate court, the parties submit written __________ presenting their arguments.
  8. A writ of __________ is a request submitted to the U.S. Supreme Court to review a lower court decision
  9. For a case to be heard in the Supreme Court, a minimum of how many justices must vote to hear the case?
  10. Following oral arguments, the justices gather for a __________, during which they discuss the case and cast preliminary votes
  11. How many tiers does the federal judiciary have?
  12. Which type of case concerns the violation of the legal rights of one individual toward another?
  13. Through 2012, only __________ African Americans and four women have served on the Supreme Court.
  14. Courts established by Congress for specialized purposes, such as the Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims Law, are known as __________ courts
  15. Which of the following represents the federal government in the Supreme Court?
    solicitor general
  16. Which of the following nominates U.S. federal judges?
  17. According to Figure 9.1, How Is the American Judicial System Structured?, there are currently how many U.S. district courts?
  18. Which of the following is the authority vested in a particular court to hear and decide the issues in a particular case?
  19. What is the name given to the power of the courts to interpret, and overturn, the actions of the executive and legislative branches?
    judicial review
  20. According to the box "Who Are Federal Judges?", recent presidents have used judicial appointments to increase the __________ of individuals serving at the highest levels of the U.S. government and to curry favor with traditionally underrepresented groups.
  21. Federal judges are appointed to __________ terms.
  22. The authority to be the first court to hear a case is which type of jurisdiction?
  23. A(n) __________ brief is submitted by someone who is not a party to the case
  24. Only a(n) __________ court can review the decisions of a lower court.
  25. The U.S. courts of appeals are divided into __________ numbered circuits and two unnumbered circuits.
  26. The ruling in which of the following cases struck down state-mandated segregation in public schools?
  27. Which of the following is an opinion written by a justice in the majority that outlines additional considerations he or she thinks are important?
  28. __________, President Nixon, and President Reagan achieved success in molding the federal judiciary to their own political beliefs.
  29. Proponents of which of the following believe that judges should use their power broadly to further justice?
  30. In which courts are the vast majority of all cases tried?
  31. In which federal courts are trials conducted?
  32. In 1987, the Senate refused to confirm the nomination of which of the following to the Supreme Court?
    Robert Bork
  33. Courts provide a statement of the legal reasoning behind their decisions in written __________.
  34. How and whether judicial decisions are translated into actual policy is known as which of the following?
    judicial implementation
  35. Which of the following was appointed by President George W. Bush?
    Justice Alito
  36. Of the 112 justices who have served on the U.S. Supreme Court, the overwhelming majority have been of which faith?
  37. What are the two types of jurisdiction courts can have?
  38. Which of the following is within the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court?
    controversies between the states
  39. Who presides over trials for presidential impeachment?
  40. According to Marburyv. Madison, which clause implies the power of judicial review?
  41. To which of the following does Article III give the power to create inferior federal courts?
  42. The U.S. Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims is an example of which type of court?
    Article I
  43. According to Figure 9.1, How Is the American Judicial System Structured?, which of the following has no original jurisdiction?
    U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
  44. How many courts of appeals are in the federal system?
  45. In court rulings, reliance on past decisions to formulate decisions in new cases is known as which of the following?
    stare decisis
  46. In a process known as __________, presidents generally allow senators from the state in which a judicial vacancy occurs to block the nomination.
    senatorial courtesy
  47. As of 2012, how many African Americans have served on the U.S. Supreme Court?
  48. According to Table 9.2, How Does a President Affect the Federal Judiciary?, which of the following presidents had the greatest influence on the composition of the federal judiciary?
  49. When the U.S. Supreme Court agrees to hear a case appealed to it from a circuit court, it is exercising its __________ jurisdiction
  50. According to the doctrine of __________, a court should not overturn precedent unless it is absolutely necessary
  51. What type of law governs relationships between individuals and defines their legal rights?
  52. Which of the following can modify a decision of the Supreme Court?
  53. All federal judicial nominations are first referred to which of the following for a hearing?
  54. If a judge believes that she should only strike down laws that clearly violate the Constitution, she likely believes in which of the following?
  55. The conference of the U.S. Supreme Court is __________.
  56. Who heads the entire federal judiciary?
  57. Which of the following limits judicial power?
  58. A court that hears and weighs evidence in order to reach the first decision in a civil or criminal case is a court of __________ jurisdiction.
  59. Which current justice on the Supreme Court is known for writing particularly stinging dissenting opinions?
  60. A case is much more likely to be accepted for review by the Supreme Court if it is backed by a significant __________ group.
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