To managers and external groups.
Between manager and employees
To colleagues and same level
To lower level
To high level
Communication flow in and organization
Four major things required to send messages effectively
- Clear and concise
- Avoid jargon/slang
- Prepared (organized)
- Calm and sobriety
When sending messages, one must not?
To send a clear and concise message one must?
Use the three components of communication effectively.
The way we say what we say. Tone,pitch, pace and volume of one’s voice.
Use of body language and sign language
The choice and arrangement of, written and spoken words.
Importance of effective communication
- Prevents misunderstandings
- Builds self confidence
- Give directions/lead
When using the principle of adaptability one must consider?
- The culture
- The psychological makeup Knowledge and vocabulary
- Must conform to the level of the audience.
Principle of adaptability
Sending messages correctly
Misunderstandings happen because?
- Inability to speak well
- Inability to listen well/effectively
Is interpreting the message back into thought or finding meaning.
Putting thoughts/Ideas/Information into a form they can be understood(Symbols/language)
Effective communication is?
Sending and receiving messages correctly.It’s a two way process
Types of communication events
- Trade fairs
Communication events are?
Platforms of communication
Communication Skills involve?
- Actions and events
- Phenomenal and meaning
To communicate effectively we must understand?
- What the message is
- The audience Audience’s perception
- Circumstance (situational and culturally)
Types of feedback
- Gestures (Nodding, sign language)
- Oral (spoken word)
Mass media (TV, Print)
Direct interpersonal. (Face toface)
Types of channels
- Personal channel
Response or reaction of the receiver after receiving the message.
Decodes (Interprets) the message from the sender.
The method or medium, of sending the message.
This is the distortion of the message. Due to lack of common ground/Symbolic forms
The encoded thoughts/Ideas/Information turns into meaning that the sender hopes to convey.Using sign language, oral
Encodes thoughts/Ideas/Information in shared symbolic form to send a communication (Message)
Elements of Communication Process Model
Uses of Communication Skills
- Inform command
Communication skills are?
An art of sharing thoughts/Ideas/Information using shared symbols effectively.
Why acquaint one-self with com skills?
- Communicate with:
- Conflict resolution/Prevention
Three components of communication are?
Communication involves two aspects, which?
Visual and audio
To send effective verbal messages
- Be precise, concise and brief to the point
- Prepare the thought before sending the verbal communication. (Organisation)
- Message should be free from jargon
- Avoid creating defensive or resistance by using, blaming criticising, judgmental or accusatory.
- Keep your sobriety and calmness (Sangfroid)
Non Verbal messages are sent through?
- Facial expressions
- Gesture/Sign language
- Spatial distance (Space,Position, and size.)
Suzane Waren and Rod Windle say non verbal communication constitutes?
55% of perceived and understood communication
Non Verbal messages are the primary way we communicate?
Some of the emotions a face can convey are?
- It can light up
- Show enthusiasm
- Express displeasure
- Express confusion and what not
Postures and gestures can create a feeling of?
- Warm welcome
- Cold rejection
Para-Verbal messages are transmitted by?
The tone, pitch, pace and volume of voice.
Professor Mehrabian says?
- It’s how we say what we say rather than what we that matter more in sending a communication.
- *he says tone and words are important, a sentence can mean different things in different tones.*Para-Verbal communication makes up 38% OF COMMUNICATION.
When a speech becomes high pitched and rapid, that indicates?
Anger or anxiety
When a speech becomes monotonic and slower, that indicates?
Boredom or feeling down
When a speech becomes abrupt, that indicates
In-consistence in all form of communication renders the listener?
Undermines working relationships
When receiving Inconsistent of conflicting messages (V,NV,PV) listeners
Believe the non verbal
*Which is often misinterpreted
Consistence is in sending messages is?
When reading messages, the key to receiving messages is?
- What another person says
- Mental involvement of the person
To listen effectively, we must not only but?
Keep an open mind
Energy and concentration
Listeners need to do the following
*in order to understand:
Frame of reference
The four major requirements to effective communication/listening are?
Concentration and energy
- Desire to see things in another’s
- perspective (Empathy)
Suspend judgment and evaluation
Receiving non verbal messages require?
- Full attention to the speaker and
- becoming aware of their non verbal messages
- Leaning gently towards the
Facing the speaker squerely
Maintain an open posture
- Maintain appropriate distance
- (Personal space)
Use body gesture
- The act of filtering out
- distractions to allow for understanding of sounds
- *Deliberate involvement of the
- mind to absorb information
The physical ability to perceive sound
What’s the main difference between hearing and listening?
- Main difference between hearing
- and listening is, listening is a deliberate involvement of the mind to absorb
What’s the key difference between hearing and listening?
- Key difference between hearing
- and listening is purpose
What is purpose in the context of listening skills?
- *Intensity varies in listening
Purpose is a reason to listen
Listening is a fundamental skill that enables us to understand
- And the non verbal in a
Is listening an active of passive activity?
- *Can be passive sometimes e.g
- watching a movie
An active listener indicates verbally or non verbally that
He’s engaged in the conversation by:
Nodding or asking questions
- Non verbal indicators of
*They encourage the speaker
Different purposes influence listening type to either?
- Passive *music, don’t have to
Active *Academic, have to retain
Elements of the listening model
Analysis of sounds to understand meaning, then relating to familiar knowledge and/or experiences
Act of remembering the sounds for future use
- Listener focuses on a minimal
- level, just enough to keep the conversation going
- Requires the listener to focus
- and concentrate to get and retain a communication
Barriers to effective communication
Lack of interest
Talking instead of listening
To listen effectively one must?
Get ready to listen
Listen with an open mind
- Listen actively *Concentrate,
- relate what you hear to what you know and read between to get implied meaning
Listen with empathy
To communicate effectively, one must limit the frequency of?
- Communication barriers (at all
- stages) with clear, concise, accurate well planned communication
Barriers to communication
Conflicting V&NV msgs
Rumours and gravepine
Lack of trust
Info over/under load
Narrow view point
- Ways to overcome communication
Avoid triggering defensiveness
- Clarify ideas before