Communication Skills-Unit one

  1. External Communication
    To managers and external groups.
  2. Diagonal Communication
    Between manager and employees
  3. Lateral Communication
    To colleagues and same level
  4. Downward Communication

    To lower level
  5. Upward Communication
    To high level
  6. Communication flow in and organization
    • Upward
    • Downward
    • Lateral
    • Diagonal
  7. Four major things required to send messages effectively
    • Clear and concise
    • Avoid jargon/slang
    • Prepared (organized)
    • Calm and sobriety
  8. When sending messages, one must not?

    • Criticise
    • Judge/Condemn
    • Accuse
    • Blame
  9. To send a clear and concise message one must?
    Use the three components of communication effectively.
  10. Para-Verbal/Lingual

    The way we say what we say. Tone,pitch, pace and volume of one’s voice.
  11. Non-Verbal

    Use of body language and sign language
  12. Verbal
    The choice and arrangement of, written and spoken words.
  13. Importance of effective communication

    • Prevents misunderstandings
    • Builds self confidence
    • Give directions/lead
    • Motivation
    • Persuasion
    • Influence
    • Absorb
  14. When using the principle of adaptability one must consider?

    • The culture
    • The psychological makeup Knowledge and vocabulary
    • Must conform to the level of the audience.
  15. Principle of adaptability
    Sending messages correctly
  16. Misunderstandings happen because?
    • Inability to speak well
    • Inability to listen well/effectively
  17. Decoding
    Is interpreting the message back into thought or finding meaning.
  18. Encoding

    Putting thoughts/Ideas/Information into a form they can be understood(Symbols/language)
  19. Effective communication is?
    Sending and receiving messages correctly.It’s a two way process
  20. Types of communication events
    • Meetings
    • Seminars
    • Workshops
    • Trade fairs
    • Conferences
  21. Communication events are?
    Platforms of communication
  22. Communication Skills involve?
    • Experiences
    • Actions and events
    • Phenomenal and meaning
    • Technologies
  23. To communicate effectively we must understand?

    • What the message is
    • The audience Audience’s perception
    • Circumstance (situational and culturally)
  24. Types of feedback
    • Gestures (Nodding, sign language)
    • Oral (spoken word)
  25. Non-Personal
    Mass media (TV, Print)
  26. Personal channel
    Direct interpersonal. (Face toface)
  27. Types of channels
    • Personal channel
    • Non-Personal
  28. Feedback

    Response or reaction of the receiver after receiving the message.
  29. Receiver
    Decodes (Interprets) the message from the sender.
  30. Channel

    The method or medium, of sending the message.
  31. Noise
    This is the distortion of the message. Due to lack of common ground/Symbolic forms
  32. Message

    The encoded thoughts/Ideas/Information turns into meaning that the sender hopes to convey.Using sign language, oral
  33. Sender
    Encodes thoughts/Ideas/Information in shared symbolic form to send a communication (Message)
  34. Elements of Communication Process Model

    • Sender
    • Message
    • Noise
    • Channel
    • Receiver
    • Feedback
  35. Uses of Communication Skills

    • Inform command
    • Assess/Evaluate
    • Persuade
    • Influence
  36. Communication skills are?
    An art of sharing thoughts/Ideas/Information using shared symbols effectively.
  37. Why acquaint one-self with com skills?
    • Communicate with:
    • Superiors
    • Subordinates
    • Clients
    • Conflict resolution/Prevention
  38. Three components of communication are?
    • Verbal
    • Non-Verbal
    • Para-Verbal/Lingual
  39. Communication involves two aspects, which?
    Visual and audio
  40. To send effective verbal messages

    • Be precise, concise and brief to the point
    • Prepare the thought before sending the verbal communication. (Organisation)
    • Message should be free from jargon
    • Avoid creating defensive or resistance by using, blaming criticising, judgmental or accusatory.
    • Keep your sobriety and calmness (Sangfroid)
  41. Non Verbal messages are sent through?
    • Posture
    • Facial expressions
    • Gesture/Sign language
    • Spatial distance (Space,Position, and size.)
  42. Suzane Waren and Rod Windle say non verbal communication constitutes?

    55% of perceived and understood communication
  43. Non Verbal messages are the primary way we communicate?
  44. Some of the emotions a face can convey are?
    • It can light up
    • Show enthusiasm
    • Energy
    • Approval
    • Express displeasure
    • Boredom
    • Express confusion and what not
  45. Postures and gestures can create a feeling of?
    • Warm welcome
    • Cold rejection
    • Openness
  46. Para-Verbal messages are transmitted by?
    The tone, pitch, pace and volume of voice.
  47. Professor Mehrabian says?
    • It’s how we say what we say rather than what we that matter more in sending a communication.
    • *he says tone and words are important, a sentence can mean different things in different tones.*Para-Verbal communication makes up 38% OF COMMUNICATION.
  48. When a speech becomes high pitched and rapid, that indicates?
    Anger or anxiety
  49. When a speech becomes monotonic and slower, that indicates?
    Boredom or feeling down
  50. When a speech becomes abrupt, that indicates
  51. In-consistence in all form of communication renders the listener?

    Loose trust

    Undermines working relationships
  52. When receiving Inconsistent of conflicting messages (V,NV,PV) listeners
    tend to?
    Believe the non verbal

    *Which is often misinterpreted
  53. Consistence is in sending messages is?
  54. When reading messages, the key to receiving messages is?
    Effective listening
  55. Listening combines?
    • What another person says
    • Mental involvement of the person
    • listening/talking
  56. To listen effectively, we must not only but?

    Keep an open mind


    Respectful attitude
  57. Listening requires?
    Energy and concentration
  58. Listeners need to do the following
    Suspend judgment

    //             Approval

    //            Evaluation

    *in order to understand:

    Frame of reference


  59. The four major requirements to effective communication/listening are?
    Concentration and energy

    • Desire to see things in another’s
    • perspective (Empathy)

    Suspend judgment and evaluation

    Mental involvement
  60. Receiving non verbal messages require?
    • Full attention to the speaker and
    • becoming aware of their non verbal messages

    • Leaning gently towards the
    • speaker

    Facing the speaker squerely

    Maintain an open posture

    *Arms un-crossed

    • Maintain appropriate distance
    • (Personal space)

    Use body gesture

  61. Listening is?
    • The act of filtering out
    • distractions to allow for understanding of sounds

    • *Deliberate involvement of the
    • mind to absorb information
  62. Hearing is?
     The physical ability to perceive sound
  63. What’s the main difference between hearing and listening?
    • Main difference between hearing
    • and listening is, listening is a deliberate involvement of the mind to absorb
    • information
  64. What’s the key difference between hearing and listening?
    • Key difference between hearing
    • and listening is purpose
  65. What is purpose in the context of listening skills?
    • *Intensity varies in listening
    • scenarios

    Purpose is a reason to listen

  66. Listening is a fundamental skill that enables us to understand
    the-------in communication?
    The verbal

    • And the non verbal in a
    • communication
  67. Is listening an active of passive activity?

    • *Can be passive sometimes e.g
    • watching a movie
  68. An active listener indicates verbally or non verbally that

    He’s engaged in the conversation by:
    Nodding or asking questions

    • Non verbal indicators of
    • listening

    Eye contact


    Leaning forward

    *They encourage the speaker
  69. Different purposes influence listening type to either?
    • Passive *music, don’t have to
    • retain

    Active *Academic, have to retain
  70. Elements of the listening model



  71. Interpreting

    Analysis of sounds to understand meaning, then relating to familiar knowledge and/or experiences
  72. Retaining
    Act of remembering the sounds for future use
  73. Types of listening
    • Passive
    • Active
  74. Passive listening
    • Listener focuses on a minimal
    • level, just enough to keep the conversation going

    *Movie, music
  75. Active listening
    • Requires the listener to focus
    • and concentrate to get and retain a communication

    *Academics, work
  76. Barriers to effective communication


    Lack of interest

    Pre-conceived ideas

    Talking instead of listening
  77. To listen effectively one must?
    Get ready to listen

    Take responsibility

    Listen with an open mind

    • Listen actively *Concentrate,
    • relate what you hear to what you know and read between to get implied meaning

    Listen with empathy
  78. To communicate effectively, one must limit the frequency of?
    • Communication barriers (at all
    • stages) with clear, concise, accurate well planned communication
  79. Barriers to communication


    Conflicting V&NV msgs




    Rumours and gravepine

    Lack of trust

    Info over/under load




    Narrow view point




    • Ways to overcome communication
    • barriers

    Use feedback

    Simplified language

    Active listening

    Restrain emotions

    March V&NV

    Build trust

    Avoid triggering defensiveness

    • Clarify ideas before
    • communicating
Card Set
Communication Skills-Unit one
Communication Skills-Unit one