Nutrition Exam #2

  1. Bolus Definition
    A ball of chewed food that travels from the mouth through the esophagus to the stomach.
  2. Peristalsis Definition
    Involuntary muscular contraction that forces food through the entire digestive system.
  3. Chyme Definition
    A mixture in the stomach that contains partially digested food and stomach bile.
  4. Trans Fat (Trans Fatty Acid) Definition
    Natural fats from meat and dairy products. Most of the trans fats we get are a result of Hydrogenation, after Hydrogenation, they act like saturated fats.
  5. Lipoprotein Definition
    Protein-Coated packages that carry fat and cholesterol through the bloodstream. The body makes four types according to their density.

    Combination of Fat (lipo) and protein.

    • Lipoproteins are made up of four components:
    • Triglycerides, Protein, Cholesterol, Phospholipids.
  6. Phospholipids Definition
    Lipids that have the ability to emulsify and link water with fat.
  7. Where carbohydrate digestion begins
    Carbs are broken down in the mouth, where salivary amylase breaks down some starches into small polysaccharides.
  8. Where does protein digestion begin?
    Protein digestion begins in the stomach, with help of the enzyme Pepsin to uncoil protein strands to allow for absorption.
  9. Where does fat digestion begin?
    Fat digestion begins in the small intestine.
  10. The mouth's role in digestion.
    Tastes and chews food, making saliva.
  11. Pharynx's role in digestion.
    Directs food from the mouth to the esophagus.
  12. Esophagus role in digestion.
    Passes food to the stomach through the lower esophageal sphincter.
  13. Stomach's role in digestion.
    • Produces an enzyme that breaks down protein.
    • Makes hydrochloric acid.
    • Churns and mixes food (hydrogenation)
    • Acts like a storage tank.
  14. Small Intestine's role in digestion.
    • Makes enzymes.
    • Digests most of food.
    • Absorbs nutrients across villi into blood and lymph.
  15. Large Intestine's role in digestion.
    • Passes waste to be excreted.
    • Reabsorbs water and some minerals.
    • Absorbs vitamins made by bacteria
  16. Rectum's role in digestion.
    Stores Feces.
  17. Anus' role in digestion.
    • Keeps rectum closed.
    • Opens for elimination.
  18. The functions of protein in the body.
    • Protein supports growth, maintenance and repair of body.
    • It serves as the body's defense.
    • It is organic.
    • 4 calories/gram
    • When it breaks down, it breaks into Amino Acids.
  19. The functions of fat in the body.
    • Insulator
    • Energy Storage
    • Fats form the base for hormones
    • 9 calories per gram.
  20. What is Glucose.
    The body's primary source of energy. When it is stored, it is stored in a form called GLYCOGEN.
  21. What is Glycogen.
    The storage form of glucose. It is stored in the muscles and liver
  22. RDA for protein.
    0.8 gram per kilogram of body weight.

    • How to check needs:
    • 1. Convert weight to KG. Your weight /2.2 = %
    • 2. Multiply by .8
  23. What are examples of Protein Denaturation?
    • Adding heart.
    • Adding acid.
    • Whipping.
    • Aggitation.
  24. What is the definition of Kwashiorkor (protein deficiency)
    A type of protein deficiency usually associated with children who are getting inadequate amounts of protein and not enough calories.

    Symptoms include: swollen belly, rash, depression.
  25. What is the definition of Marasmus (protein deficiency)
    A type of protein deficiency where people aren't getting protein or calories, causing muscles to waste away.

    Symptoms include: chronic infection, depression, wasted look.
  26. Omega 3

    A. Food Sources.
    B. Health Benefits
    • Food Sources:
    • Fish- Fatty, cold water fish. Salmon, tuna, sardines, trout, mackerel.
    • Plant- canola oil, walnuts, flax seed.

    • Health Benefits:
    • -Reduces blood clotting
    • -Reduces inflammation
    • -Reduces triglycerides.
  27. How many Amino Acids are there?
    • 9 Essential.
    • 11 Non-Essential.
  28. What is soluable fiber?
    Solluable fiber swells in water, like a sponge. It is generally found in or around plant cells.
  29. What is insolluable fiber?
    Insolluable fiber doesn't dissolve as much water as solluable.  It is generally found in the structural part of plants.
  30. What foods are associated with solluable fiber?
    • Beans, peas.
    • Barley
    • Oats, Rye
    • Fruits (Citrus)
    • Brussel Sprouts
  31. What foods are associated with insolluable fiber?
    • Wheat bran,
    • Brown Rice
    • Vegetables
    • Fruits
    • Seeds
  32. What constitutes a whole grain?
    A whole grain contains the endosperm, germ and bran.  It is not refined or milled.
  33. Where is a carbohydrate stored?
    In the liver and muscles.
  34. How are carbs stored?
    Carbs are stored in the form of glycogen.
  35. What are the functions of carbs in the body?
    • Carbs are the body's primary source of energy.
    • 4 calories per gram.
    • Carbs are part of connective tissues, hormones, enzymes, and genetic materials.
  36. What are the functions of insulin?
    Insulin is the hormone that increases the movement of glucose from the blood stream to the body's cells.
  37. What type of fat is Lecithin?

    What role does it play?
    Lechithin is a phospholipid.

    Lecithin acts as an emulsifier.
  38. What is the common term for sucrose?
  39. What is the common term for fructose?
    Fruit sugar. Natural sugar.
  40. What is the common term for lactose?
    Milk sugar.
  41. What is the common term for maltose?
    Malt sugar. This occurs during fermenting.
  42. What are the building blocks of carbohydrates?
    Monosaccharides or simple sugars, like glucose. they form polysaccharides that are complex sugars like starch.
  43. What are the building blocks of proteins?
    building blocks are amino acids like glycine and alanine to produce polypeptides like transport proteins in the cell
  44. What are the building blocks of lipids?
    Fatty acids are the building blocks of triglycerides.
  45. What are the functions of HDL?
    HDL protects the heart against cholesterol by transporting excess cholesterol out of the body.
  46. How does trans fat affect HDL and LDL?
    Trans fat blocks the body's ability to regulate LDL, causing the LDL to raise, lowering the HDL levels.

    Raising the risk for heart disease.
  47. What is the function of glucagon?
    When glucose is stored in the liver, glucagon and insulin get released, helping to increase the movement of glucose from the blood stream to the body's cells.
  48. What is the definition of non-essential amino acids?
    Amino acids that can be made in the body. Not needed from your diet. There are 11 essential acids.
  49. What is the definition of essential amino acids?
    These are needed from your diet. They must be obtained from your food to allow your body to function properly.  There are 9 essential acids.
  50. What is protein energy malnutrition?
    A broad spectrum of malnutrition, from mild to serious cases, also called protein-kcalorie malnutrition.
Card Set
Nutrition Exam #2
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Digestion Protein