exam 3

  1. What does tonic mean?
    tone of the muscle
  2. What refers to the background tension of a muscle at rest?
  3. what is "iso"?
    same or equal
  4. What is "metric"?
    length (measurement)
  5. The length of the muscle changes while the tone remains constant is what?
  6. What is isometric?
    the length remains constant while the tone changes
  7. What three ways can muscles obtain ATP?
    • phosphagen system
    • glycogen/lactic acid system
    • aerobic system
  8. What does use oxygen and provides more immediate supply of ATP but is not as productive?
    Anaerobic mechanisms
  9. What does use oxygen and takes more time but yields high amounts of ATP?
    aerobic mechanisms
  10. What is myoglobin?
    a molecule that holds oxygen within muscle cells as an immediate source of oxygen for the cell
  11. What is glycogen?
    long chain of glucose molecules stored in muscle cells for an immediate source of glucose
  12. What system?
    involves using pre-made ATP
    if fully used, lasts about 10 seconds
    provides for the strongest or fastest performances
    phosphagen system
  13. What system?
    convert 1 glucose molecule into a net gain of 2 ATP molecules
    fairly rapid and lasts about 1-2 min.
    produces lactic acid
    glycogen/lactic acid system
  14. What system?
    uses oxygen
    concerts 1 glucose into 38 ATP molecules
    requires a decrease in strength and speed
    unlimited duration
    aerobic system
  15. what are the functions of the nervous system?
    • internal coordination
    • internal and external sensation
    • store info.
  16. What is the CNS composed of?
    any nervous tissue and cells of the brain and spinal cord
  17. What does the CNS do?
    • processing of info.
    • conduction of signals
  18. What is the PNS include?
    any nervous tissue and cells outside of the brain and spinal cord
  19. What does the PNS do?
    provides sensation and motor effects
  20. What is the ANS?
    involves involuntary nervous tissue and cells
  21. What is the SNS?
    voluntary actions of nervous tissues and cells
  22. What can be organized furthur into a sympathetic nervous system and a parasympathetic nervous system?
  23. What is the fight or flight response that stimulates muscles, heart and respiratory?
    sympathetic nervous system
  24. What is "restin' and digestin'" that stimulates urinary and digestive system?
    parasympathetic nervous system
  25. What are neurons?
    cells of the nervous system that transmit electrical signals as a form of communication
  26. What are characteristics of neurons?
    • excitable
    • conductive
    • secretion
  27. What three types of neurons are there?
    • sensory
    • motor
    • interneuron
  28. What detects stimulation in the body or environment and conducts it to the CNS?
    sensory neurons
  29. What conducts electrical signals from the CNS to the PNS?
    motor neurons
  30. What processes info, only in the CNS and has no snesation?
  31. Why can't we feel our brain being touched?
    because of interneurons
  32. What are the three major REGIONS to a neuron?
    • dendrites
    • soma
    • axon
  33. What are dendrites?
    branch like extensions off of the the main body of the cell
  34. detects changes in the environment around them and conduct those changes in the form of electricity to the soma is what?
  35. What is the soma?
    main cell body of the neuron (nucleus, cytosol, organells)
  36. What processes the info from the dendrites and can generate electrical signals to be sent down the axon to a target cell?
  37. What is the axon?
    long extension off of the soma that extends out to the target cell
  38. What conducts electrical signals from the soma to the target cells?
  39. In motor neurons especially, special helper cells called _____ encase the axon along it's length
    schwann cells
  40. What provides  2 layers important to the axon?
    Schwann cells
  41. Gaps between Schwann cells are called what?
    nodes of ranvier
  42. what is the branched ending of the axon?
    terminal arborization
  43. each branch has what at it's end (of terminal arborization)
    synaptic knob
  44. What are the 2 layers of the schwann cell?
    • myelin sheath
    • neurilemma
  45. What stimulates the axon?
  46. What is composed of a fatty protein called myelin?
    myelin sheath
  47. What speeds up the signal in the neuron?
    myelin sheath
  48. What is the outer layer created by the schwann cell?
  49. What provides a continuous "sleeve" that helps a severed axon regrow back to it's target cells?
  50. What are the 6 types of neuroglia?
    • oligodendrocytes
    • ependymal cells
    • microglia
    • astrocytes
    • schwann cells
    • satelite cells
  51. What are the neuroglia?
    helper cells of the nervous system
  52. What 4 neuroglia are only in the CNS?
    • oligodendrocytes
    • ependymal cells
    • microglia
    • astrocytes
  53. What 2 neuroglia are only found in the PNS?
    • schwann cells
    • satelite cells
  54. What does oligodendrocytes do?
    provide myelin for CNS axons
  55. What does ependymal cells do?
    produce and secrete cerebrospinal fluid
  56. What does microglia do?
    macrophages of the CNS
  57. What does astrocytes do?
    create a blood/brain barrier
  58. What do schwanna cells do?
    create myelin and neurilemma around PNS axons
  59. What do satelite cells do?
    support soma of PNS neurons
  60. What is large surge of electricity that travels down an axon to target cells and is synonymous with electrical waves or signals?
    action potential
  61. What does polarity mean?
  62. Because the ECF has mostly positively charged ions at first, the ECF carries what?
    a strong positive charge
  63. What is the way to quantify the charge within the axon before, during and after an action potential?
    membrane potential
  64. When an action is ready to send a signal, the inside of the axon has a resting potential of -70mV is what?
    resting potential
  65. What is the value of the axon's charge where it will respond by creating a signal. An axon's threshold potential is -55 mV
    threshold potential
  66. the axon's potential at the peak of the signal is +35mV
    peak action potential
  67. what are the 3 functions of the spinal cord?
    • conduction
    • reflexes
    • locomotion
  68. In the spinal cord, there is a large gathering of what?
    myelinated and unmyelinated neurons
  69. Conduction of the spinal cord allows the ___ and ____ to have an efficient route for communication.
    PNS, brain
  70. How many pairs of spinal nerves are off of the spinal cord?
  71. What neurons gather and enter in the back of the spinal cord?
    sensory neurons
  72. What neurons gather and exit out the front of the spinal cord?
    motor neurons
  73. What are meninges?
    protective group of 3 tissue layers
  74. What are the 3 layers of the meninges?
    • dura mater-outermost
    • arachnoid mater-middle
    • pia matter- innermost
  75. What does the subarachnoid space contain?
    cerebrospinal fluid
  76. Functions of the brain?
    • learning
    • memory
    • control of other organs and tissues
    • processing of sensory info.
  77. What is the largest region of the brain  that is convaluted (has folds)
  78. The cerebrums outer layer is grey matter known as what?
    cerebral cortex
  79. What is surrounded by meninges?
  80. The cerebrum is separated by what into two hemispheres?
    longitudinal fissure
  81. Each hemisphere of the cerebrum has how many lobes?
  82. What is the frontal lobes' functions?
    • memory
    • personality
    • emotions
    • problem solving
    • decision making
  83. What is the parietal lobes' function?
    primary sensory area
  84. What is the occipital lobe's function?
    primary visual center
  85. What is the temporal lobes' function?
    primary auditory center
  86. Where is the corpus collosum located?
    below the cerebrum
  87. What is the "C" shaped area of the cerebrum at its deepest and most inferior region?
    corpus collosum
  88. What provides a link between the 2 hemispheres of the brain?
    corpus collosum
  89. What is located inferior to the corpus callosum and superior to the brain stem and has two regions?
  90. what is the function of the thalamus?
    receives sensory info. from all over the body and directs info. to correct area of the brain
  91. Where is the hypothalamus located?
    it tapers to extend into the pituitary gland
  92. What is the function of the hypothalamus?
    it monitors and manages many aspects of homeostasis
  93. The brain stem is a collection of what?
    3 structures
  94. What is the most inferior region of the brain?
    brain stem
  95. what happens in the midbrain?
    • auditory location
    • visual tracking
  96. what is visual tracking?
    the use of eye and neck muscles to follow objects
  97. What happens in the pons?
    • urinary bladder control
    • facial expressions (controlling own, recognizing others)
  98. What is the pneumetaxic (moving air) area of the brain?
    the pons
  99. what happens in the medulla oblongata?
    • controls respirations
    • cardiovascular rate area
  100. Where is the cerebellum?
    inferior to the occipital lobe
  101. What is the function of the cerebellum?
    coordinates skeletal muscle movement.
  102. Damage to what area can lead to tremors or symptoms of parkinson disease?
  103. What is cerebral spinal fluid produced by?
    ependymal cells
  104. What flows through subarachnoid spaces of meninges and also flows through the chamber of brain and spinal cord?
    cerebral spinal fluid
  105. What is the function of cerebral spinal fluid?
    • rinses CNS-removes waste 
    • allows brain and spinal cord to float
  106. What are the 3 functions of blood?
    • provide a means for transportation in the body
    • protection
    • regulation
  107. What does the blood transport?
    • nutrients
    • electrolytes
    • waste product
    • water
    • gases
    • hormones
    • heat
  108. What, in the blood can protect against many infectious agents?
  109. What are antibodies?
    protect against previously encountered foreign antigens
  110. What helps stop bleeding?
    platelets and blood proteins
  111. What initiates the inflamation response?
  112. By being made of ____, blood can be transported everywhere and help manage water levels
  113. What does the blood contain that helps balance the pH of the body's fluids?
  114. What does blood regulate?
    body temp
  115. What is plasma?
    liquid part of the blood
  116. What is found in plasma?
    • mostly water
    • proteins
    • electrolytes
    • lipids
    • glucose
    • hormones
    • gases 
    • wastes
  117. What are the two blood components?
    • plasma
    • formed elements
  118. What are the formed elements in the blood?
    • erythrocytes
    • leukocytes
    • platelets (thromocytes)
  119. What have a discoid shape and lack a nucleus?
  120. How long do erythrocytes last?
    live about 120 days
  121. Where are erythrocytes created?
    red bone marrow
  122. What is the function of erythrocytes?
    transport oxygen and some carbon dioxide
  123. What is hemoglovin made of?
    • 4 globin proteins
    • 4 heme groups
    • 4 iron atoms
  124. How many hemoglobins per red blood cell?
    280 million
  125. In hemoglobin, each iron atom can attract 1 oxygen molecule as they pass by what?
    the lungs
  126. Where are leukocytes created?
    red bone marrow
  127. What has a spheroid shape and 5 major types?
  128. What has a grainy appearance?
  129. What is the most common leukocyte that defends agains bacteria?
  130. What to eosinophils do?
    • defend against parasites
    • respond to allergens
  131. What doe basophils secrete?
    • histamine that increases blood flow
    • heparin to prevent clotting
  132. Are Agranulocytes grainy?
  133. What 3 types of agranulocytes are there?
    • lymphocytes
    • monocytes
    • platelets
  134. What defends against viruses, foreign cells, cancer cels and create the antibodies?
  135. What do monocytes become?
    • macrophages
    • antigen-presenting cells
  136. What is a cell fragment from a large cell within red bone matter that is an important component of blood clotting?
  137. Where is the heart located?
    thoracic cavity
  138. What has a double pump?
    the heart
  139. Which side of the heart is the pulmonary side that has deoxygenated blood?
    right side.
  140. Which side of the heart is the systemic side and has oxygenated blood?
    left side
  141. What is the double-layered membrane sac that encases the heart?
  142. What does the pericardium do?
    contains fluid between the membranes to prevent damage from friction as it beats
  143. The heart wall is composed of 3 layers. What are they?
    • epicardium-outermost
    • myocardium-middle
    • endocardium-innermost
  144. Epicardium has what type of tissue?
  145. Myocardium has what type of tissue?
    cardiac muscle tissue
  146. What receives and holds blood. Their walls generate pressure on that blood to pump it onward.
  147. What receives blood from the body through the vena cavae and sends it to the right ventricle?
    right atrium
  148. What receives blood from pulmonary veins and sends it to the left ventricle?
    left atrium
  149. What receives blood from right atrium and sends it to the pulmonary trunk?
    right ventricle
  150. What receives blood from left atrium and sends it to the aorta?
    left ventricle
  151. What are valves?
    • "one-way" doors at the exit of each chamber.
    • prevent the backflow of blood
  152. Where is the atrioventricular valve located?
    between atria and ventricles
  153. What is the right side AV valve called?
    right AV valve or tricuspid valve
  154. what is the left side AV valve called?
    left AV valve, bicuspid valve or mitral valve
  155. What prevents the atrioventricular valves from opening all the way?
    tendinous chords
  156. Where are semilunar valves located?
    the exits of the ventricles
  157. What is the right side semilunar valves called?
    pulmonary valve
  158. What is the left side semilunar valve called?
    aortic valve
  159. When blood tries to fall back through these valves, the cusps fold together and close
    semilunar valves
  160. What are major blood vessels?
    large tubes that carry blood toward or away from the heart
  161. What is 2 large veins that bring deoxygenated blood from the body to the right atrium?
    vena cavae
  162. where does superior vena cava come from?
    arms and head
  163. Where does inferior vena cava come from?
    areas below the heart
  164. what is a series of vessels involved with getting blood to and back from the lungs?
    pulmonary blood vessels
  165. What is a large artery that begins to send blood toward the lungs?
    pulmonary trunk
  166. what are 2 branches of the pulmonary trunk each carrying blood to a lung?
    pulmonary arteries
  167. what are pulmonary veins?
    bring blood back from lungs to left atrium
  168. What is a large artery that carries oxygenated blood away from the left ventricle toward the body?
  169. What are small blood vessels on the anterior surface of the heart that supply oxygen and nutrient rich blood to the myocardium?
    coronary arteries
  170. What is the cardiac conduction system?
    nervous system of the heart
  171. What is the area of specialized heart cells near the superior vena cava in the right atrium wall.
    sinoatrial node (SA node)
  172. What does the pacemaker do for the heart?
    it's actions determine the heart rate
  173. What is a group of specialized heart cells at the base of the interatrial septum?
    atrioventricular node (AV node)
  174. What does the AV node do?
    receives signals from Sa node and sends action potentials down nerves in the interventricular spetum
  175. What is the brief nerve off of the AV node that begins to descend through the IV septum?
    AV bundle
  176. What is two split nerves from the AV bundle that extend to the apex of the heart?
    bundle branches
  177. What are widespread branches of the bundle branches that extend back up through the walls of the ventricles?
    purkinje fibers
  178. What does the electrocardiogram do?
    way to show what the conduction system is doing
  179. whats the order of the electrocardiogram (terms)
    Pwave, QRS complex, Twave
  180. What is the amount of blood that leaves the heart at the end of one heart beat?
    stroke volume
  181. What is cardiac output?
    amount of blood pumped out of the heart in 1 min.

    SV x BPM=cardiac output
  182. what is tachycardia?
    • faster than normal resting H.R.
    • 100 bpm or more.
  183. what is bradycardia
    slower than normal resting H.R. 60 bpm or fewer
  184. What is ventricular contraction and leads to max. measured blood pressure in the arteries?
  185. What is the normal systolic pressure?
    120 mm Hg
  186. What is ventricular relaxation that leads to a min. measured blood pressure in the arteries?
  187. What is the normal diastolic pressure?
    80 mm Hg
  188. What are tubes through which blood flows. consists of a series of connected, widespread tubing
    blood vessles
  189. What is an artery?
    carries blood away from the heart
  190. What is a vein?
    carries blood toward the heart
  191. What is a capillary?
    smallest of blood vessels. allows blood to slowly pass by the cells and exchanged materials
  192. How many tissue layers are in veins and arteries?
  193. What are the 3 tissue layers of veins and arteries?
    • tunica externa
    • tunica media
    • tunica interna
  194. What if the outermost layer that anchors vessels to it's spot? (veins and arteries)
    tunica externa
  195. What is the middle layer that has smooth muscle and allows for vasoconstriction and vasodilation and has elastin
    tunica media
  196. What helps arteries accomodate the flucuations in pressure?
  197. What is the innermost layer which has epithelial tissue and allows for smooth flow of blood?
    tunica interna
  198. What is 1 layer of simple squamous cells rolled into microscopic tubes?
  199. what is the function of arteries and veins?
  200. What is the function of capillaries?
    exchange of materials between blood and cells
  201. What applies pressure to veins and cause blood to move onward?
    skeletal muscle contractions
  202. What veins of lower extremeties have valves to prevent backflow?
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exam 3
exam 3 a&p