1. Viscosity:
    the property of a fluid that resists the force tending to cause the fluid to flow. (the higher the viscosity, the slower it flows)
  2. Casualty Agent:
    are designed to kill or injure personnel.  
  3. Incapacitating Agent:
    designed to temporarily disable personnel and do not create permanent injury.
  4. Volatility:
    measure of how readily an agent evaporates.
  5. Chem Tactical grouping
    • Casualty Causing
    • Incapacitating
    • Chem compounds
  6. Chem casualty causing agents
    • nerve
    • blister
    • blood
    • choking
  7. Chem incapacitating
    • psychological
    • physiological
  8. chem compounds
    • tear gas
    • vomiting
    • training
    • herbicides
  9. Chemical Agent

    Dissemination Methods
    same as bio toxin
  10. spread rate
    35nm @ 10nm
  11. Nerve Agents
    Physical Properties
    • •Variable Persistency
    • –gas (minutes)
    • –liquid
    • –solid (days)



    • •Percutaneous &
    • Inhalation hazard

    •Slow hydrolysis (detoxification)

    •Rapidly destroyed by decontaminating agents
  12. Nerve Agent Exposure
    Mild Symptoms
    •Sudden headache

    •Reduced vision

    •Unexplained runny nose


    •Difficulty breathing

    •Stomach cramps


    •Muscular twitching
  13. Nerve Agents
    Severe Symptoms
    •Strange/Confused Behavior

    •Gurgling Sounds

    •Pinpointed Pupils

    •Red Eyes/Tears


    •Severe Muscle Twitching

    •Involuntary Urination & Defecation


    •Breathing Stopped
  14. Nerve Agents
    Immediate Actions
    • •Protect Yourself
    • –Stop breathing & don mask
    • –Remove any liquid (M291 or RSDL)

    • •Protect Others
    • –Sound alarm
    • –Mask Victim 

    • •Identify Symptoms
    • –mild case in self
    • –severe case in others

    • •Treat symptoms accordingly( buddy Aide or Self Aide)
    • –Three Atropine
    • –Three 2Pam-Cl

    •Report locations of injured

    •Move injured if time permits

    •Continue with mission
  15. Mustard Agents
    Physical Properties
    • •Very Persistent (days to
    • weeks)

    •Oily liquid or dusty agent

    colorless to yellow

    •Smells like garlic or horseradish

    •Heavier than water (small droplets tend to float)

    •Slow hydrolysis

    •Neutralized by HTH
  16. Mustard Agents
    •No immediate pain

    •Skin reddens in 4-6 hrs

    •Blisters form in 1-2 days

    •Healing takes 3-8 weeks

    •Lung tissue contact rare

    (Dusty agents)
  17. Blood Agents Physical Properties
    • •Cyanide containing compounds that block oxygen transfer from
    • blood to cell tissue

    • •Non-persistent
    • <15min hazard duration 

    • •Gas
    • –colorless 
    • –Inhalation hazard only

    •Degrade mask filters

    •Smells like bitter almonds
  18. Blood Agents
    Immediate Effects
    • •Irritation of
    • nose, throat, eyes

    • •Stimulated
    • breathing




    • •Increased
    • pulse rate

    •Skin flushes red

    • •Violent
    • convulsions occur in 20-30 sec

    • •Breathing
    • ceases in 1 min

    • •Heart stops
    • beating in 1-5 min

    • •Treatment is
    • limited IAW NAVMED P-5041
  19. Choking Agents
    Physical Properties
    • •Non-persistent
    • 10-20 min hazard duration 

    • •Gas
    • –colorless 
    • –Inhalation hazard only 

    • •Sweet Odor
    • –New mown hay
    • –Fresh corn
    • –Green onions
  20. Choking Agents
    Immediate Mild Effects
    • •Minor exposure
    • causes:

    –Irritation of nose, throat, lungs

    –Chest pains

    –Tearing eyes

    –Dry throat


  21. Choking Agents
    Immediate Severe Effects
    • •Pulmonary Edema (“Dry land drowning”)
    • –Bonus effect - heart attack 

    • •Severe exposure Causes:
    • –Violent convulsions
    • –Coma
    • –death 

    •Treatment - None
Card Set
DCASE unit 6a