(T/F) All arteries carry oxygenated blood and all veins carry deoxygenated blood.
False, pulmonary arteries and umbilical arteries carry deoxygenated blood while pulmonary veins and umbilical veins carry oxygenated blood.
(T/F) The right side of the heart pumps blood into the pulmonary circulation and the left side pumps blood into systemic circulation.
Starting with the right atrium, trace the path of blood flow throughout the body.
Right atrium -> Right Ventricle --> Pulmonary arteries --> Pulmonary capillaries --> Pulmonary veins --> Left atrium --> left ventricle --> Aorta --> arteries --> arterioles --> capillaries --> venules --> veins --> Vena cava
Which valve separates the right atrium and right ventricle?
The tricuspid valve separates the right atrium from the right ventricle.
Which valve separates the left atrium and left ventricle?
The mitral valve separates the left atrium from the left ventricle.
(T/F) Systole is when the heart relaxes and diastole is when the ventricles contract.
False, the ventricles contract during systole and the heart relaxes during diastole.
What is the electrical pathway in the heart?
Electrical conduction pathway:
Sinatrial node --> atrioventricular node --> bundle of His --> Purkinje fibers.
Which nerve of the parasympathetic nervous system decreases heart rate?
The Vagus Nerve.
Which component of the nervous system increases heart rate?
Sympathetic nervous system stimulation causes an increase in heart rate.
What is plasma?
Plasma is the liquid component of blood.
What are the cellular components of blood?
The cellular components of blood are erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells), platelets.
(T/F) The three types of leukocytes are granular, leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes.
Which type of leukocyte plays a key role in inflammation and allergic reactions?
Granular leukocytes (basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils) are active in inflammation and allergic reactions.
Which type of leukocyte plays a key role in immune response?
Lymphocytes are key players in immune response.
What is the function of a monocyte?
A monocyte phagocytizes foreign matter.
What are the four blood types?
The four blood types are A, B, AB, and O.
Which blood type is considered to be a universal donor?
Which type is a universal recipient?
Type O blood is considered to be a universal donor.
Type AB blood is considered to be a universal recipient.
What is the Rh factor? How can the Rh factor complicate pregnancy?
The Rh factor is an antigen on the surface of RBCs. Following the birth of an Rh+ child, and Rh- mother develops antibodies to the Rh factor. These antibodies can attack the blood cells of any future Rh+ fetuses carried by the mother.
According to the Bohr effect, would high levels of H+ and HCO3- increase or decrease hemoglobin's affinity for O2?
High levels of H+ and HCO3- would decrease hemoglobin's affinity for O2.
(T/F) Platelets play a key role in the immune response.
False, platelets are key players in clot formation.
Which proteins are essential for proper clotting?
Thrombin and fibrin are essential for clot formation.
(T/F) B lymphocytes are involved in humoral immunity.
What is the function of immunoglobins (antibodies)?
Antibodies attract other cells that can phagocytize an antigen or cause the antigens to clump together.
What role do T lymphocytes play in an immune response?
T lymphocytes are involved in cell-mediated immunity. They are responsible for the body's defense against viral and fungal infections.
(T/F) Skin, ciliated mucosa, macrophages, and inflammatory responses are all examples of nonspecific defense mechanisms.
What happens to interstitial fluid that doesn't diffuse into a capillary?
Excess interstitial fluid is picked up by the lymphatic system and returned to the circulatory system.
What is a lymph node and what is its function?
A lymph node is swelling along a lymphatic vessel that contains phagocytic cells. Their role is to filter the lymph and remove/destroy foreign particles.