Vitamins and Minerals

  1. Vitamin A mechanism of action
    • essential for vision
    • needed for normal growth and development
    • maintenance of bones, teeth, reproduction, integrity of mucosal and epithelial surfaces
    • cholesterol and steroid synthesis
  2. Vitamine A Toxicity symptoms
    • irritability, drowsiness, vertigo, delirium, coma, vomiting diarrhea
    • increased intracranial pressure in infants
    • peeling of skin and erythema
  3. Vitamin D Mechanism of Action
    • regulate absorption and utilization of calcium and phosphorus
    • extraction of calcium from bone and increase absorption from the stomach
  4. Vitamin D deficiency
    tetany and osteomalacia
  5. Vitamin D toxicity
  6. Vitamin E mechanism of action
    • protect polyunsaturated fatty acids
    • antioxidant properties
  7. Vitamin K mechanism of Action
    essential for synthesis of blood coagulation factors
  8. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) Mechanism of action
    • required for metabolic pathways
    • carbohydrate metabolism
    • integrity of peripheral nervous system, cardiovascular, GI tract
  9. Vitamin B1 indications
    • metabolic disorders, beriberi, Wernicke's encephalopathy, peripheral neuritis, neuritis of pregnancy
    • management of poor appetite, ulcerative colitis, chronic diarrhea, cerebellar syndrome or ataxia
    • oral insect repellant
  10. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) mechanism of action
    • convert two coenzyme essential for tissue respiration
    • carbohydrate catabolism
    • required to active vitamin B6
    • converts tryptophan into niacin
    • maintains erythrocyte integrity
  11. Vitamin B2 indications
    • longstanding infections, liver disease, alcoholism, malignancy, probenecid taking
    • microcytic anemia, acne, migraine headache, congenital methemoglobinemia, muscle cramps, Goalan's syndrome
  12. Vitamin B3 Mechanism of action
    • carbohydrate, protein, purine, and lipid metabolism, tissue respiration
    • glycogenolysis
    • antilipemic drug
  13. Vitamin B3 indications
    pellagra and hyperlipidemia
  14. Vitamin B3 contraindications
    liver disease, severe hypotension, arterial hemorrhage, active peptic ulcer disease
  15. Vitamin B3 adverse effects
    flushing, pruritis, and GI distress
  16. Vitamin B6 mechanism of action
    • protein, carbohydrate, and lipid utilization¬†
    • conversion of amino acid tryptophan to niacin and serotonin
    • necessary for integrity of peripheral nerves, skin, mucous membranes, hematopoietic system
  17. Vitamin B6 indications
    seizures, morning sickness, metabolic disorders
  18. Vitamin B12 mechanism of action
    nucleoprotein and myelin synthesis, cell reproduction, normal growth, hematopoiesis, fat and carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis
  19. Vitamin B12 indications
    pernicious and megoblastic anemia
  20. Vitamin B12 adverse effects
    itching, transitory diarrhea, fever
  21. Vitamin C Mechanism of Action
    • collagen synthesis and connective tissue maintenance, tissue repair, folic acid metabolism, erythropoiesis, synthesis of lipids, proteins, and steroids
    • maintenance of bone, teeth, and capillaries
    • iron absorption, aids in cellular respiration, aids in resistance to infections
  22. Vitamin C indications
    pregnancy, lactation, hyperthyroidism, fever, stress, infection, trauma, burns, smoking, cold exposure, certain drug use
  23. Vitamin C adverse effects
    nausea, vomiting, headache, abdominal cramps, acid urine
  24. calcium mechanism of action
    • teeth and skeletal bone, coagulation pathway catalyst, coafactor in clotting reaction
    • maintenance and function of nervous, muscular, and skeletal muscles, renal function, respiration, cell membrane and capillary permeability
    • enzyme reaction catalyst
  25. Calcium contraindications
    ventricular fibrillation of the heart
  26. calcium adverse effects
    • anorexia, nausea, vomiting, constipation
    • Injection: burning, necrosis, sloughing of tissue, cellulitis, soft tissue calcification
  27. Magnesium mechanism of action
    • cofactor
    • required for muscle contraction and nerve function and produces an anticonvulsant effect
    • essential for enzyme systems associated with energy metabolism
  28. Magnesium indications
    anticonvulsant, pregnancy complications, inhibit uterine contractions, pediatric acute nephropathy, cardiac dysrythmias, constipation
  29. Magnesium contraindications
    heart block, renal failure, adrenal gland failure, hepatitis
  30. Magnesium adverse effects
    tendon reflex loss, difficult bowel movements, CNS depression, respiratory distress and heart block, hypothermia
  31. Phosphorus Mechanism of Action
    • synthesis of DNA, AMP, ADP, ATP
    • necessary for the development and maintenance of the skeletal system and teeth
  32. Phosphorus adverse effects
    • diarrhea, ¬†nausea, vomiting, GI disturbances
    • confusion, weakness, breathing difficulties
Card Set
Vitamins and Minerals
Pharm test five