Psy Midterm 3

  1. Memory
    • an indication that learning has persisted over time
    • ability to retrieve and store information
    • starts as an impulse
    • Synapses send information to other neurons
  2. Encoding
    • Part of memory
    • when you get information into your brain it happens through all other senses
  3. Storage
    • Part of Memory 
    • retaining information
  4. Retrieval
    • Part of Memory 
    • the ability to pull information out of storage and into your consciousness
  5. 3 Stage Model of Memory
    • Stage 1:Sensory Memory-sensory memory of something you've just experienced
    • Stage 2:Short Term Memory-can hold a lot of information, usually pertinent to what you are immediately doing
    • Stage 3:Long Term Memory-Memories that have been stored, these can fade but exist in an unlimited amount
  6. How does encoding happen?
    • Automatic Processing-requires no effort, hard to turn of, happens all the time
    • i.e. looking at what someone is wearing even though you're listening to what they're saying
    • Effortful Processing-requires effort and the conscious choice to focus on a particular thing
  7. Effortful Processing
    • type of encoding that requires effort and conscious choice to focus on a particular thing
    • Happens in 3 ways:
    • Rehearsal- memory formed over rehearsing something over and over again  
    • Spacing Effect- rehearsing in an organized, well spaced, manner over time 
    • Serial Position Effect- the position something holds in a series has an effect on how well we remember it; easier to remember something at the beginning and the end of a sequence
  8. How do we encode?
    • We encode with meaning; we link it to something we know, building it off of previous information, or relating it to a previous piece of information 
    • Through Visual or Mental Organization
    • Mnemonic-memory aids
    • Chunking-acronyms or grouping of information in order to remember it 
    • Hierarchies- similar to an outline, big topics that include smaller topics in order to rank information
  9. Iconic
    • Sensory Memory 
    • brief, fleeting, photographic memory
  10. Echoic
    • Sensory Memory 
    • brief ability to obtain what you just heard
  11. Short Term Memory
    • limit in space and duration 
    • some say it's limited to 7 pieces of information
    • also called your working memory
  12. Long Term Memory
    believed that memory is unlimited
  13. Why do we forget memories?
    • because new memories override old ones
    • memory trace decays, if memories aren't used or recalled the memory fades overtime?
  14. Where are memories stored?
    Memories are stored everywhere, not in one single space
  15. Effect of Stress on Memory
    can either make memories more vivid or repressed
  16. Amnesia
    loss of memory
  17. Implicit Memory
    • Also known as Procedural Memory
    • You know how to do something
    • i.e. tie your shoes, brush your hair
  18. Explicit Memory
    • Also known as declarative memory 
    • You remember something specifically something you have experienced
    • i.e. what you did over spring break
  19. Hippocampus
    • a neural center in the limbic system
    • helps process explicit memories for storage
    • damage to the left side is verbal information loss
    • damage to the right side is loss of visual designs and location
  20. Retrieval
    • the ability to recall information that is not in our conscious awareness
    • We retrieve it through cues: visual, words, experiences
  21. Deja Vu
    • means "already seen" in French
    • a situation's detail reminds you of a past situation that is highly similiar
  22. State Dependent Memory
    when you learn something in one state it's easier to remember in the same state again
  23. Forgetting
    • -Encoding: the information was never fully encoded into your brain        
    • -Storage: memory trace decays, or fading of the memory as it is stored
    • Retrieval: you can’t quite recall a memory (Ex: when something is “on the tip of your   tongue”)
    • -Memories can also become too distorted or too persistent
  24. Schacters 7 Sins of Forgetting
    • Absent Minded-inattention to detail
    • Transience-something is blocking the memory, storage decay over time 
    • Blocking-can't quite remember it 
    • Misattribution-our memories become distorted and we're confusing the source of information
    • Intrusion-persistent unwanted memories 
    • Bias-colors recollections and causes your to misremember
    • Suggestability-memories become distorted because of suggestions being made in how we are being asked or how other recall the event
  25. Cognition
    all mental activities associated with processing  , understanding and communicating
  26. Concept
    a mental grouping of of similar objects group and people
  27. Prototype
    • a mental image that we create that incorporates all the features that we associate with a concept 
    • our "ideal"
  28. How do we solve problems?
    • Algorithms-step by step procedure that guarantees a solution, goes through all the possible answers until you find the right one, takes more time
    • Heuristics-a rule of thumb strategy, look at all the probable answer and find the highest probability of the right answer, more prone to error but takes less time
    • Insight-a sudden flash of inspiration
  29. Obstacles to problem solving
    • Confirmation Bias-search for information that confirms our beliefs , biased
    • Fixation- the inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective, stress and tension adds to this 
    • Function Fixedness- when we perceive a function of an object as fixed and unchanging
  30. Overconfidence
    tendency to believe more than we actually know
  31. Framing
    looking at something else from a certain perspective
  32. Belief Perseverance
    our inclination to hold onto beliefs despite evidence that contradicts them
  33. Language
    • our written, spoken and gestured words and the way we combine them
    • Babble-at 4 months
    • Distinct Babbling at 10 months 
    • One word sentence at 1 year
    • Two word sentence at 2 years
  34. Language Development Theories
    • Skinner- we talk because of association, imitation and reinforcement
    • Chomsky-we are prewired for language with a language acquisition device, only need to hear a language in order to begin to learn it 
    • Whorf- linguistic determinism-different languages impose different realities
  35. Animal Intelligence
    • they can solve problems, make tools
    • the can learn human sign language and communicate
  36. Intelligence
    • the mental abilities needed to select, adapt and shape the environment 
    • can learn from experiences
    • solve problems
    • reason clearly
  37. First intelligence test
    • Developed by Binet and Simon
    • made children take a certain test before starting school
    • Belief that:all children develop the same way but at different speeds 
    • mental age=chronological age
  38. Stanford Binet Test
    Created by Terman to make the French test fit for Americans (California)
  39. IQ Score
    • By Stern
    • Mental Ability Score used now 
    • mental age/chronological age*100
  40. Spearman
    G Factor is General Intelligence
  41. Gardner and his 8 kinds of intelligence
    • no hierachy but inclinations
    • Verbal
    • Mathematical
    • Musical
    • Spatial
    • Movement
    • Intrapersonal-knowing yourself, why you do what you do
    • Interpersonal-between people, intuitive about others feelings
    • Nature
  42. Sternberg
    • 3 categories of intelligence 
    • Analytic-academic intelligence
    • Creative -novel ideas in novel situations
    • Practical-used in daily living
  43. 5 aspects of creativity
    • Expertise
    • Imaginative Thinking Skills
    • Venturesome Personality
    • Intrinsic (internal) Information
    • Creative Environment
  44. Intelligence Test
    • Wexler Adult Intelligence Scale
    • Wexler Intelligence Scale for Children
    • Standardization (average scores)
    • Reliability (average score is consistent overtime)
    • Validity
    • Nature and Nurture and Intelligence (nature and nurture influence intelligence but does one outweigh the other?)
  45. Motivation
    • a need or desire that serves to energize behavior and direct it to a goal
    • Two kinds: hunger and sex
  46. Theories of Motivation
    • Instinct Theory-fixed pattern that's unlearned and occurs within a species (Salmon spawning in the same place every time, infants rooting)
    • Drive Reduction Theory-we act to reduce drive or gain a reward (Homeostasis-maintenance of a steady internal state; Incentive-stimuli which pulls us towards or away from something)
    • Arousal Theory-we act to increase arousal (intellectually, sexually) (infants crawl into different rooms to explore)
  47. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
    • Level 1: Physiological needs (food, water, need)
    • Level 2: Safety needs (order in world)
    • Level 3: Need to belong/love
    • Level 4: Esteem Needs
    • Level 5: Self Actualization Needs (not everyone gets here)
  48. Hunger
    • Hunger Pangs
    • Blood Sugar Drops
    • Release of Hormone Orexin- makes you feel hungry
  49. Set Point
    • point in which our weight is set 
    • where your body feels most comfortable
  50. Basal Metabolic Weight
    rate at which your body expend energy to maintain basic body functions
  51. How do you lose weight
    putting in less calories, force body to use excess fat reserve, exercising
  52. Rodin and Schlower
    • Researched Externals
    • People who are cued by external influences, like sight,smell, or sound of food when not really hungry
  53. Bulimia Nervosa
    • eat way too much food and then purge it all out of the system to avoid gaining weight 
    • Some are exercise fanatics as well
  54. Anorexia Nervosa
    • don't take in enough food to avoid gaining weight
    • lose their menstrual cycle because their is no extra fat 
    • Can lead to osteoperosis and decay of tooth enamel
  55. Sexual Motivation
    • Kinsey-administered first survey on America about sexuality 
    • Masters-researched reproduction of rabbits; then studied people while having sex (heart beat, blood pressure, etc)
  56. Sexual Response Cycle
    • Stage 1:Excitement
    • Stage 2:Plateau
    • Stage 3:Orgasm
    • Stage 4:Resolution
  57. Reasons People Claim to Not Use Contraceptives
    • Ignorance
    • Guilt 
    • Lack of Communication
    • Alcohol Use
    • Media Messages
  58. LeVay's Experiment
    • Studied the hypothalamus of straights and gays, believed homosexuality was biological
    • Gay men's cell clusters were smaller
    • Straight men's cell clusters were bigger
    • Believed life factors decided whether or not we take the way we were born or to go the other way
  59. Island of Inis Beag
    • no premarital sex
    • keep undergarmets on during sex
    • adults wash only what's visible while wearing clothing
    • no female orgasm 
    • men stay away from women while menstruating and after pregnancy 
    • little sex, lots of anxiety
  60. Island of Mangaia
    • sex is pleasure
    • masturbation at young age
    • circumcision at age of 13, taught to give orgasm before cumming
    • mothers proud of daughters having many sex partners
    • lots of sex, little anxiety
  61. Brazilian Villaga Mehiniku
    • focuses on sex
    • children know parents other sex partners by name 
    • gifts for sex
Card Set
Psy Midterm 3
Midterm 3