Water and major minerals (sources, RI, function, deficiency, groups @ risk, toxicity, UL)

  1. water
    • 2.7-3.7 liters/day
    • solvent, reactant, transporter, etc.
    • tox: confusion, coma, conflusions
    • UL: ND
  2. sodium
    • RDA: <2300mg/day
    • major positive extracellular ion
    • deficiency: cramps
    • tox: contributes to high blood pressure
    • UL: 2300mg/day
  3. potassium
    • fresh fruits and vegs, legumes, whole grains, milk and meat
    • 4700mg/day or more
    • major positive intracellular ion
    • deficiency: irregular heartbeat, fatigue, muscle cramps
    • tox: abnormal heartbeat
    • UL: ND
  4. Chloride
    • table salt, processed foods
    • <3600mg/day
    • major negative extracellular ion, fluid balance
    • deficiency: unlikely
    • tox: none likely
    • UL: 3600mg/day
  5. Calcium
    • function: bone and tooth structure, blood clotting, nerve impulse transmission, metabolic reaction
    • sources: milk and dairy, some greens, fortified foods, tofu
    • deficiency: osteoporosis, osteopenia, ineffective blood clotting, muscle spasms
    • toxicity: increase risk of kidney stone, interference with other minerals
  6. phosphorus
    • function: part of essential compounds (ATP, phospholipids, DNA, RNA), bone structure, pH control
    • sources: dairy, grains, meat (liver), processed food
    • deficiency: bone loss, weakness, loss of appetite (@ risk: premature infants, vegans, alcoholics, chronic diarrhea, antacids)
    • toxicity: bone resorption
  7. Magnesium
    • function: enzyme cofactor, activates ATP, nerve lung and cardiac function, K/Ca metabolism -> bone health
    • sources: plant foods, hard water
    • deficiency: irregular heartbeat, weakness, muscle pain, relationship to hypertension (alcoholics at risk)
    • toxicity: weakness, nausea, kidney failure
Card Set
Water and major minerals (sources, RI, function, deficiency, groups @ risk, toxicity, UL)