FAMU PSY Chap 8 & 9

  1. Germinal Period
    •the zygote is formed  

    •the placenta is formed

    • lasts
    • 2 weeks after conception)
  2. Embryonic  Period
    •most critical and delicate phase

    •organs and other systems are formed

    • between2
    • and 8 weeks
  3. Fetal Period
    •longest stage of prenatal development

    •systems and organs complete their development

    • •neural activity in the brain increases and the fetus
    • functions more independently

    • 8
    • weeks through birth
  4. Threats to Prenatal Development
    • §Sickle-cell anemia-   blood
    • disorder causing red blood cells to take             a sickled shape

    • §Phenylketonuria (PKU)- can cause
    • mental retardation

    • §fragile X syndrome-
    • result from mutations
    • or changes in parts of             the X chromosome
  5. Teratogens
    • §Any foreign substance or agent that increases the risk
    • of abnormal development and growth of the embryo or fetus.

    • §The mother’s diet, exercise, drinking (alcohol), and
    • smoking habits can all introduce teratogens into the prenatal environment
  6. Physical Development in Adolescence
    • §Puberty-  Physical changes
    • in the body in which the child’s sex organs mature signaling that sexual
    • reproduction is possible.

    • §Growth spurt- The rapid physical
    • growth, usually in height and weight, that occurs at particular points in our
    • development

    • §Primary sex
    • characteristics-
    • include the organs needed for sexual reproduction (for example, the ovaries and
    • testes)

    • §secondary sex
    • characteristics
    • include non-reproductive bodily changes
  7. Jean Piaget
    -interested in understanding how our thinking develops over time
  8. Piaget Four
    Stages of Development
    • Sensorimotor Stage
    • Preoperational Stage
    • Concrete Operational Stage
    • Formal Operational Stage
  9. Sensorimotor Stage
    From birth until about 24 months of age

    • Blending together of the sensory and motor abilities
    • propels infant into action with environment

    • Object permanence - Appreciation and
    • recognition by the infant that objects that are no longer in awareness still
    • exist
  10. Preoperational Stage
    • Lasts
    • from ages 2-6

    • Characterized
    • by symbolic thought,
    • language development, and egocentrism

    • Toward the end of this stage, conservation
    • develops
  11. Concrete Operational Stage
    • Lasts
    • from ages 6-12

    Conservation develops

    • Ability
    • to perform mental
    • operations reflecting logical reasoning are both present are also present

    • §Transitivity- A = B, and B = C,
    • then A = C

    • Seriation-
    • Ability to arrange objects in
    • some form of numerical or quantitative order (e.g.,
    • arranging pencils in order by length)
  12. Formal Operational Stage
    • Begins
    • around age 12

    • Characterized
    • by the ability of the
    • child to engage in hypothetical and deductive reasoning

    •  Adolescents at this
    • stage are still prone to egocentric thinking
  13. Preconventional
    • judge
    • actions as right or wrong based upon their consequences
  14. Conventional
    • morality
    • is determined based upon the standards and rules set by society
  15. Postconventional
    • internalized
    • their own values, beliefs and standards about what is right and wrong
  16. Authoritarian Style
    §Very rigid or inflexible

    • § Tend to use physical
    • punishment more often than not

    § Their children tend to have more social conduct and emotional problems
  17. Permissive Style
    • §Tend
    • be either neglectful
    • or indulgent

    • §In terms of their involvement with their children they
    • are either very uninvolved or overly involved

    §Their children tend to be more selfish, dependent, and immature
  18. Authoritative Style
    • §Parents
    • establish clear
    • boundaries and guidelines for behavior

    §Children are encourage to voice their point of view

    • §Parents blend reason, love, warmth, and affection into their
    • parenting methodology

    • §Rarely use physical punishment, but instead use methods
    • like loss of privalages and time out

    §Viewed by Baumrind as the most healthy style of parenting
  19. Schemata
    • (plural
    • for schema) are organized mental representations or thought patterns about the
    • world
  20. Two processes that are absolutely important in the process of cognitive development
    • §Assimilation- 
    • process of incorporating new information into and existing schema

    • §Accommodation- 
    • process of adjusting or modifying current schemata
Card Set
FAMU PSY Chap 8 & 9
These are the flashcards for chapters 8 and 9.