intro to psych

  1. Research Designs
    Exeprimental, Quantitative observational, qualitative
  2. Measures of psychological responses
    • Objective quantitative
    • Subjective quantitative
    • Qualitative,
  3. Ethical Principles (5)
    • Informed consent
    • Voluntary participation
    • Confidentiality
    • Right to withdraw
    • Accurate reporting
  4. Advantages of experimental design
    • can infer causes between variables
    • easy to replicate
    • control extraneous variables
    • able to make generalisations from results
  5. Disadvantages of experimental design
    • May not apply to real world
    • Sample may not reflect population
    • Can involve ethical concerns
    • Many variables cannot be controlled/manipulated
    • extraneous variables may affect conclusions
  6. Advantages of quantitative observational design
    • Allows complex studies that cannot be done in lab
    • allows unethical variables¬†to be studies
  7. Disadvantages of quantitative observational design
    • Hard to replicate
    • Lack of controlling variables
    • observer bias can distort results
    • Presence of observer can influence results
    • doesn't allow generalisation of results
  8. Advantages of Qualitative designs
    • May be more convenient
    • rich data can be provided
    • Participant free to express opinion
    • in-depth responses
    • usefull when little/nothing is known about a topic
  9. Disadvantages of qualitative design
    • Doesn't allow generalisation of results
    • observer may influence behaviour
    • bias/interpretation may distort results
  10. How to understand qualitative data?
    content analysis
  11. Steps involved in content analysis (5)
    • Coding
    • Familiarisation
    • Identify themes
    • Record Frequency
    • Display as frequency distribution
  12. Most common measure of dispersion
    Standard deviation
  13. Define Validity
    how accurately investigation measures what it claims to measure
  14. Define Reliability
    • Is this investiation consistent if it were to be repeated with different participants
    • can be reliable without being valid
  15. How to reduce impact of research on animals
    • Refinement - find ways to reduce suffering and distress in animals
    • Reduction - reduce number of animals used
    • Replacement - replace research with methods not using live animals.
    • Must be done without reducing quality of research or quality of animal welfare
  16. Examples of qualitative designs (5)
    • Focus group
    • delphi technique
    • Survey (open ended questions)
    • Naturalistic observation
    • Case study
  17. Types of objective quantitative measures
    • Standardised tests (IQ test)
    • Physiological measures (sweat)
    • Behaviour counts (frequency)
  18. Why do Psychologists value subjective data more than other scientists?
    Subjective data has values that are affected by person factors. Psychologists value this because they are interested in how people judge things based on their personality, feelings and attitudes.
  19. Advantages of rating scales (3)
    • limited responses
    • less biased of analysis
    • statistical analysis
  20. Disadvantages of rating scales
    Do not allow participants to qualify or explain their responses
  21. Advantages of open-ended questions (2)
    • allow insight into complex problems
    • Participants able to fully express thoughts and feelings
  22. Disadvantage of open-ended questions (2)
    • more time consuming to analyse
    • subject to bias
  23. Ethical practices just involved in Psyhology
    Informed consent
  24. Ethical Principles for all Science research 
    • Work should be originally theirs or credit given to others where it is due
    • Not have any misrepresented data or procedures
Card Set
intro to psych
Revision for test