intro to psychology

  1. what is consciousness?
    Anything of which we are aware of at any time (thoughts, feelings, sensations and perception of the external environment)
  2. what are circadian rhythms?
    regular fluctuations from high to low (within a 24 hour period) of bodily functions and behaviors
  3. why do we sleep?
    sleep restores the mind and body/ evolved to keep humans out of night harms.
  4. what are the two theories of sleep?
    circadian theory and restorative theory
  5. what does the circadian theory state?
    sleep evolved to keep humans out of harm during the night time
  6. what does the restorative theory state?
    sleep restores mind and body
  7. what are the different types of psychoactive drugs?
    • stimulants
    • depressants
    • hallucinogens
  8. what effects do stimulants cause?
    stimulants speed up the activity in the central nervous system, suppress appetite, cause a person to feel awake, alert and energetic. (caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine) (can increase heart rate and blood pressure)
  9. effects of depressants?
    slow down activity in the central nervous system. Slow down bodily functions, reduce sensitivity to stimulants. (alcohol, tranquilizers, narcotics) (can lead to loss of consciousness
  10. effects of hallucinogens?
    alter and distort perception of time and space as well as mood. cause hallucinations and feelings of unreality. (marijuana and ecstasy)
  11. what is memory?
    memory is the process of encoding storing and retrieving information
  12. what is encoding?
    encoding is the process of transforming information into a form that can be stored into mind
  13. what is storing?
    the process of maintaining information in memory
  14. what is retrieval?
    process of bringing information to the mind
  15. what are of the brain is responsible for memory?
    located in the pre-frontal cortex of the brain
  16. what is the Atkinson & Shiffrin three memory system?
    memory model that divides memory into three different systems.
  17. what are the tree componesnts of the Atkinson & Shiffrin system?
    • sensory memory
    • short term memory
    • long term memory
  18. What is sensory memory for?
    stores information from the senses (visual images or sounds)
  19. what is short term memory for?
    stores information currently being used
  20. what is long term memory?
    stores information from minutes to a life time
  21. what is the capacity of sensory memory?
    between 5-9 items. from a fraction of a second to two seconds
  22. short term memory capacity?
    short term memory stores between 5-9 items. 30 seconds without rehersal
  23. what is the capacity of long term memory?
    virtually unlimited. from minutes to a lifetime
  24. rehearsal?
    purposely repeating information currently being used to keep it in short term memory
  25. displacement?
    when short term memory is full and a new item is learned an older item is pushed out and forgotten
  26. automaticy?
    ability to recall information from long term memory without any effort (developed overtime, like reading)
  27. what are the two types of long term memory?
    declarative and non-declarative memory
  28. what is declarative memory?
    stores fact, information and personal experiences that can be brought to mind verbally or images
  29. what is episodic memory?
    records events as they been experienced (trip to Hawaii)
  30. what is semantic memory?
    stores general knowledge or objective facts and information
  31. non-declarative memory?
    stores motor skills, habits and conditioned responses
  32. motor skills
    acquired through practice and the memory for motor movements (riding a bike without thinking about it)
  33. classically conditioned responses
    things learned through conditioned responses (feeling sick at the smell or sight of certain food)
  34. serial position effect?
    with items learned in a sequence, there is a better recall for the beginning and ending items than those in the middle o
  35. reconstruction?
    an account or event pieced together from a few highlights (what did you do last weekend?)
  36. context effect?
    better recall of information in the context it was learned
  37. possible cause of forgetting?
    decay, encoding failure, interference, consolidation failure, motivated forgetting, prospective forgetting, retrieval failure.
  38. what is recall?
    must provide information by searching memory. (fill in the blank) (stimulus of a bit of information that aids retrieval)
  39. what is recognition?
    identify familiar material as it has been encountered before (multiple choice, matching, true & false)
  40. what is relearning?
    percentage of time saved when material is relearned compared to the time when it was learned the first time (measure of memory)
  41. concepts?
    mental categories used to represent a class or groups
  42. prototypes?
    the most common and typical feature or concept
  43. exemplars?
    concepts are stored in memory from personal experiences
  44. decision making?
    considering alternatives and deciding among them
  45. availability heuristic?
    how probable or likely and event is to happen (flying vs. driving)
  46. analogy heuristic?
    applies solution that solved a similar problem before
  47. working backward heuristic?
    determine goal and work backward to current situation
  48. Representativeness heauristic?
    how close a new situation is to an existing one. (panchero's-chipotel)
  49. recognition heuristic?
    decision making process stops when certain factor is determined
  50. means-end analysis heuristic?
    current position compared to desired goal and series of steps taken to reach that goal
  51. second language acquisition?
    learning a second language can decrease memory efficiency in word tasks
  52. second language proficiency?
    associated with age, educational attainment, proficiency in the first language, and active vs. passive learning
  53. achievement test?
    test to measure how much a person has learned up to a certain point
  54. aptitude test?
    predicts one's future performance (test to determine how successful a person will be under a certain situation. ACT ASAT)
  55. intelligence test
    used to measure once's overall cognitive ability. measure intellectual ability (IQ tests)
  56. Spearman's g theory of intelligence
    idea that intelligence can be measured by an IQ score. (all mental operations to some degree)
  57. thurnstone's primary mental abilities?
    seven districts capabilities that singly or in combination are involved in all intellectual abilities
  58. Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences?
    several independent forms of intelligence
  59. stenberg's triarchic theory?
    three types of intelligence (creative, practical and analyticall)
  60. normal curve?
    graph used to measure ntelligence, based on IQ scores. most people are at the normal curve of the graph
  61. intrinsic motivation
    desire to behave in a certain way because it is enjoyoable or satisfying to your self
  62. extrinsic motivation
    desire to behave in a certain way to gain an external reward or to avoid an undesirable consequence
  63. drive reduction theory
    internal needs produce drive which motivates to reduce need
  64. arousal theory
    motivated to maintain a certain level of arousal
  65. yerkes; Dodson law
    task performance is better when arousal level is appropriate
  66. goal orientation theory?
    achievement motivation depends on goal orientation
  67. what are the different types of goal orientation?
    mastery/approach, mastery/avoidance, performance/avoidance, performance/approach
  68. anorexia nervosa?
    overwhelming fear to gain weight, compulsive dieting to the point of starvation, excessive weight loss
  69. bulimia nervosa?
    repeated, uncontrolled  and often binge eating usually followed by purging
  70. display rules?
    • cultural rules that indicate how and where expression is appropriate. 
    • different rules cross culturally
  71. maslow's hierarchy of needs.
    pyramid of needs. you have to fulfill the need at the bottom before you can move in to the next ones. (physiological needs, safety needs, belonging and love needs, stem needs, need for self actualization)
  72. theories of emotion?
    • James-Lange
    • Cannon-Bard
    • Schachter-Singer
    • Lazarus
  73. James-Lange
    event→physiological arousal. Physiological arousal. emotional experience
  74. Cannon-Bard
    emotion-provoking stimuli received by the senses. Stimuli interpreted by the brain→emotional and physiological arousal
  75. Schachter-Singer
    event→cognitive appraisal. Cognitive appraisal→emotional and physiological arousal
Card Set
intro to psychology
test number two