psych chapter 7

  1. cognitive psychology
    study of higher mental processes: language, thinking, judging, reasoning, problem solving, decision making
  2. mental images & how athletes use concept
    • mental images-representations in the mind that resemble the object or event being represented
    • athletes use mental imagery to focus on a task, a process they call “getting in the zone”
  3. prototypes
    typical, highly representative examples of a concept. (ex. thinking of iPad as an example of a digital tablet
  4. Heuristic
    Cognitive shortcut, may lead to solution(or not not)
  5. Availability heuristic
    Past Experience w/ event expect the same to happen or use same approach
  6. Representative Heuristic
    Decision for object/event based on average member of class
  7. Arrangement problems
    groups of elements must be rearranged/ recombined to get result
  8. Inducing structure
    identify relationships that exist among the elements construct new relationship among them
  9. Transformation problem
    consists of initial state, good state, series of steps to change initial state into goal
  10. means-end analysis
    Repeated testing to see if means(method) leads to desired outcome
  11. forming subgoals
    Dividing problem into intermediate steps; solving each step
  12. insight
    sudden awareness of solutions
  13. functional fixedness
    think of object only in typical use (ex. plate only for food)
  14. confirmation bias
    initial hypotheses, favored; later get contradictory into, yet alternative solutions ignored
  15. divergent vs. convergent thinking
    • Divergent: The ability to generate unusual response to a question
    • Convergent: The ability to produce responses that are based on knowledge and logic
  16. phoneme: also recognize examples
    • most basic sound in a language
    • affect the meaning of speech
  17. syntax vs. semantics
    • Syntax- rules for combining words and phrases to form sentences (sentence structure)
    • Semantics- rules for meaning of words in sentences phrases
  18. telegraphic speech & overgeneralizations; recognize examples
    • few words to communicate meaning of a sentence(telegram)
    • Overgeneralizations- apply rules even when applied in error e.g “he runned”
  19. info about babbling
    • 1st step; language development
    • Speech-like, meaningless sounds(3 months- 1 year)
    • Hearing impaired-babble w/ hands
  20. learning theory approaches(skinner)
    • theory that language learning is depending on modeling and reinforcement
    • (mama say hi baby says hi)
  21. nativist theory
    theory that languange learning is depending on genetics
  22. interactionist theory
    • theory that language learning is a combination of nativist theory(genetics)
    • and learning theory (reinforcement)
  23. Chompsky's universal grammer is the theory that?
    all world's languages have similar underlying structure
  24. Language acquisition device
    Neural system of the brain, permits people to learn & understand language
  25. Is there a critical period in language development?
    Time period- child very sensitive to language cues when language easily acquired
  26. psychologist’s definition of intelligence
    intelligence-capacity to understand, think rationally, use resources effectively
  27. fluid vs. crystallized intelligence  
    • fluid- info processing capabilities, reasoning, memory
    • crystallized- accumulation of info, skills, strategies-learned from experience; used in problem solving and challenges
  28. Gardner's intelligence of body kinesthetic
    skills in using the whole body or various portions of it in the solution of problems or in the construction of products or displays, exemplified by dancers, athletes, actors, and surgeons
  29. Gardner's intelligence of musical
    skills in tasks involving music
  30. Gardner's intelligence of linguistic
    skills involved in the production and use of language
  31. Gardner's intelligence of logical mathematical
    skills in problem solving and scientific thinking
  32. Gardner's intelligence of spatial
    skills involving spatial configurations, such as those used by artists and architects
  33. Gardner's intelligence of interpersonal
    skills in interacting with others, such as sensitivity to the moods, temperaments, motivations, and intentions of others
  34. Gardner's intelligence of intrapersonal
    knowledge of the internal aspects of oneself; access to one’s own feelings and emotions
  35. Gardner's intelligence of naturalist
    ability to identify and classify patterns in nature
  36. practical vs. emotional intelligence (Sternberg)
    • Sternberg’s practical Intelligence: Career & living success
    • Emotional Intelligence :Insight into other’s feelings
  37. IQ formula; how to calculate
    • (Mental Age/Physical Age) x 100
    • average IQ is 120
  38. achievement vs. aptitude tests
    • achievement test- determine level of knowledge in subject area (trained area)
    • aptitude test- test to predict a person’s ability in a particular area (work); sub-achievement tests
  39. reliability vs. validity
    • reliability- test consistently measures what it’s trying to measure (scores)
    • validity- test’s ability to measure what it’s supposed to measure
  40. norms
    Standards of a test that compares one test score to another score
  41. causes of mental retardation (intellectual disability)
    • 1/3 of cases are related to biological or environmental factors
    • Fetal alcohol syndrome: most common cause of mental retardation in newborns occurring when the mother uses alcohol during pregnancy
  42. characteristic of gifted
    • 2% to 4%
    • IQ 130+
    • Most often outgoing, well adjusted, healthy, popular people who are better than the average person
  43. heritability
    A measure of the degree to which a  characteristic is related to genetic, inherited factors.
Card Set
psych chapter 7
psychology chapter 7 flashcards