Functional imaging found underactivation and oeractivation of FOXP2 where?
Underactivation: In broca's area, right inferior frontal gyri and putamen
Overactivation: In posterior parietal, occipital, and post-central regions not normally associated with language.
What is teh summary of FOXP2
Leads to deficits in procedural learning (memory)
Mutation does not let the FOXP2 protein go back through the nuclear membrane, where it is supposed to reconnect and regulate transcription.
FOXP2 regulates activities of other genes
Is FOXP2 found in large samples with LI?
Not found in large twin LI study
Not a very common cause of LI
5 unrelated individuals or families have been found to have LI and FOXP2 abnomalities
What are the genetics of Dyslexia?
Dyslexia is familial
37% of first-degree family members
5 times higher rate than the expected rate
What are the Genetics of Autism?
Risk for autism to siblings of probands with autism is between 2% and 6%
In twin studies MZ= 60%-90%
Is there a gene for autism?
No consensus regarding any particular gene, but some are promising
Can you help a child if their disorder is genetic?
YES!!! Early intervention is best.
Between 200 and 2010 how much of the US population growth did the hispanic population account for?
From 1980 to 2009 the school age children who did not speak english at home rose from ___ to ____
4.7 million to 11.2 million
What are the two types of Bilinguals?
Simultaneous Bilinguals: Two languages from birth or before 2 years of age.
Sequential Bilinguals: Mastered one language and learned second language after 2 years of age.
What is a sub group of Sequential Bilinguals?
Early Sequential Bilingualism:
Home language first (but not mastered)
Second language with formal schooling
What is the largest and most challenging group of bilinguals?
Early sequential bilinguals.
What is fluency dependent on in early sequential bilinguals?
Context (How immersed)
AMount of exposure
Birth order (younger is exposed more)
School procedures (monolingual, bilingual, ELL services)
Social interaction/ Neighborhood
For Early sequential bilinguals, L1 is ______ L2 is ______ so it is difficult to _____
differentiate between a difference and a disorder.
What are the thoughts regarding English only?
It is argued that there is no support for English-only initiatives and that the English-only movement can have negative consequences on psychosocial development
psychometric and health-service delivery systems for many american citizens and residents who are not proficient in english
Does bilingualism delay acquistion? cause confusion? lower your intelligence? lower a child's chance for succesS?
How many languages can a typical kid learn simultaneously?
Building on a first language does what for L2
builds on it.
Families need to lead in what?
making decisions regarding whether their children need two languages.
If a child with a language and/or cognitive disorder needs to know two languages...
the focus should be upon helping them learn the two languages. It is not appropriate to recommend that the input be reduced to a single language.
Describe the Processing accounts of SLI with regard to bilingualism
If a child with SLI were to learn two languages, the generalized slowing hypothesis would predict that this child would show delays not only compared to monolingual unaffected age peers in each but also compared to monolingual age peers with SLI
Describe the Linguistic accounts of SLI with regard to bilingualism
Even if a child with SLI was learning two languages, this would not necessarily change their proficiency with respect to those aspects of language that are considered to be clinical markers for monligual children with SLI (meaning general processing does not fit?)
Can bilinguals with SLI acquire grammatical morphology with the same rates and patterns as monolinguals with SLI?
Applied to simultaneous bilinguals
Bilinguals master the linguistic rule systems of both languages
They can keep those systems seperate.
Describe Separate development hypothese
Bilingual input from birth= acquistion of both languages
development follows the same patterns and time frame for both languages
Separate development is assumed
sequential bilingualism is more interrelated
L1 guides development of L2
Learn L2 through filter of L1
High frequency forms are used correctly- more errors on low frequency forms
High degree of similarity between two languages= earlier mastery
what is the unified model?
Competition between cues across phonology, semantics, morphosyntax and pragmatics.
With interdependence, languages in contact perspective:
clearly different forms are less likely to be vulnerable to change and differences that are more subtle may be more difficult to tease appart
Describe Vocabulary and Bilingualism
Word learning for bilinguals is similar to monolinguals if both languages are counted.
Children may not encode the same items in each of their two languages.
Describe morphosyntax and bilinugalism
bilinguals have the same MLU in both languages as monolinuals
morphology in both languages develops as expected.
Cros linguistic influence can occur with grammer (not ungrammatical, just unusual)
Narrative macrostructure is
similar across multiple languages with some differences noted
spanish : less consequences more emotion
AA: Less plans, topic associating and topic centered.
What is the narrative macrostructure of language impairment of bilinguals.
Difficulty with perspective talking
cohesion (pronouns wrong)
Semantics are similar to monolingual LI patters
Difficulty processing and learning new words.
IS there a standard for english?
No, but there is a form of English (stnadard american english) that has been promoted to be the representative standard dialect. This is false!! Any english is good english.
Standard american english is defined by who? how many nonstandard dialects in US
Defined by a particular social and economic group of power.
ALL ARE GOOD ENGLISH
Dialectical variation is influenced by?
racial / ethnic group membership
code switching happens with...
bi or multi dialectal.
What does dialectal variation complicate?
Discuss the Overrepresentation of wahsington and tomblin.