1. flexion
    reduces the angle of the joint and brings the two bones closer together
  2. extension
    the opposite of flexion, increases the angle or distance between two bones or parts of the body
  3. abduction
    moving the body part away from the midline or median plane of the body
  4. adduction
    moving the body part towards the midline of the body
  5. rotation
    moving a bone around its central axis common in ball-and-socket joint
  6. what does rice stand for and when would it be used
    • R: rest
    • I:  ice
    • C: compression
    • E: elevation

    used after an injury can reduce swelling, and inflammation and enhance healing
  7. fibromyalgia
    is a condition of widespread connective tissue and muscular pain and often includes severe fatgue of unknown origin. has no cure
  8. pronation
    rotation of the forearm that turns the palm of the hand backward or posteriorly
  9. plantar flexion
    a toe-down movement of the foot at the ankle increases the angle of the joint
  10. dorsiflexion
    moving the instep of the foot up and dorsally , reducing the angle between the foot and the lef 
  11. osteoarthritis
    degenerative joint disease DJD. thinning and degeneration of the articular cartilage of synovial joints
  12. rheumatoid arthritis
    an autoimmune inflammatory condition that involves an immune system respones to the synovial membrane causing synovitis. proteins are released at the site of the joint inflammation thickening of the synovium and damage to the cartilage , bone , tendons , and ligaments
  13. herniated disk
    soft nucleus of an intervertebral disk protrude through a tear or weakiened area in its tough outer cartilaginous covering. common in the lumbar region cervical region RARE in the thoracic region of the spin

    problems water content decline and the structures begin to shrink and become less flexible.
  14. sprain
    wrenching or twisting of a joint in a abnormal plane of motion or beyond its normal ROM that results in stretching and / or tearing of a ligament.
  15. strain
    overstretching of a muscle or tendon tear of tissue away from bone
  16. spasm
    spontaneously persist for hours
  17. fractures
    a break or crack in a bone from trauma or disease
  18. women with osteoporosis may develop what type of fracture
    fractured or crack vertabrea, wrist , hips , kyphosis
  19. osteoporosis
    calcium deposits in the bone gradually decline and bones become increasingly weak and brittle so that even smal stressors such as bending over or coughing can cause fractures

    diagnosised by DEXA dual exgery x-ray absorptiomentry scan
  20. remodeling
    bone turnover, bone grow
  21. osteomalacia
    softening of the bones inadequate calcium or phosphorus caused by a fat absorption problem in the GI tract prevents adequate absorption of dietary fats vitamin D deficiency.
  22. spiral fracture
    break is caused by a twisting or rotary force which results in long sharp pointed bone ends childs abuse injury
  23. oblique fracture
    break is caused by a twisting force with an upward thrust , fracture ends are short and run at an oblique angle across the bone
  24. transvere fracture
    break is caused by direct force applied perpendicular to a bone runs across a bone
  25. greenstick fracture
    caused by commpression or angulation forces in the long bone of children under 10 because of softness crack on one side intact on the other side
  26. medications for arthrisits
    NSAIDs , analgesics , aspirin , diclofenac , indocin, naproxen , corticosteroids
  27. kyphosis
    humpback excessive upper thoracic
  28. lordosis
    swayback excessive lumbar
  29. scoliosis
    abnormal deviation or curvation to the right or left
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