PSY 421 Exam 3

  1. Reinforcement
    The point of ___ is to Increase a behavior by giving or taking away something
  2. Extinction
    The point of ___ is to Stop a behavior by removing an existing behavior
  3. Punisher
    a stimulus whose presentation immediately after a behavior causes that behavior to decrease in frequency

    AKA: aversive stimuli/aversives
  4. Principle of Punishment
    If, in a given situation, someone does something that is immediately followed by a punisher, then that person is less likely to do the same thing again when she or he next encounters a similar situation.
  5. Pain-Inducing-Punisher
    a stimulus immediately following a behavior that activates pain receptors or other sense receptors that typically evoke feelings of discomfort
  6. Unconditioned Punishers
    stimuli that are punishing without prior learning
  7. Reprimand
    a strong negative verbal stimulus immediately contingent on behavior

    i.e. "NO! That was Bad!" also with a fixed stare and/or firm grasp
  8. Conditioned Punisher
    a stimulus that is a punisher as a result of having been paired with another punisher
  9. Timeout
    a period of time immediately following a particular behavior during which an individual loses the opportunity to earn reinforcers
  10. Exclusionary Timeout
    consists of removing an individual briefly from a reinforcing situation immediately following a behavior

    i.e. being put in a TO room
  11. Nonexclusionary Timeout
    consists of introducing into the situation, immediately following a behavior, a stimulus associated with less reinforcement

    i.e. being ignored by others
  12. Response Cost
    involves the removal of a specified amount of a reinforcer immediately following programs in which learners earn tokens as reinforcers

    i.e. library fines, traffic tickets
  13. SDP
    a stimulus in the presence of which a response will be punished

  14. Therapeutic Punishment
    the deliberate use of punishment as a treatment strategy
  15. Escape Conditioning
    aversive stimulus is REMOVED immediately after the occurence of a behavior to increase the likelihood of that behavior

    Aversive stimulus must be present BEFORE the response (person responds to make "punisher" Stop)
  16. Avoidance Conditioning
    a contingency in which a behavior prevents an aversive stimulus from occuring therby resulting in an increase in the frequency of that behavior.

    "Warning" stimulus comes and person heeds the warning to avoid the punisher

    Maintains the behavior.
  17. Discriminated Avoidance Conditioning
    type of avoidance conditioning that includes a warning signal that enables the individual to discriminate a forthcoming aversive stimulus

    (i.e. clicking before a loud tone)
  18. Warning Stimulus
    (aka conditioned aversive stimulus)

    a stimulus that signals a forthcoming aversive stimulus
  19. Avoidance/Escape
    ___ conditioning is preferred over ___ conditioning
  20. Operant Conditioning
    the process of strengthening a behavior by reinforcing it or weakening it by punishing it
  21. Operant Behaviors
    voluntary behaviors that operate on the environment to generate consequences, and are in turn controlled by those consequences
  22. Respondent Behavior
    reflexive behaviors are elicited by prior stimuli and are not affected by their consequences
  23. Elicit
    automatic or involuntary
  24. Evoke
    choice or voluntary
  25. Respondent Conditioning (Classical)
    states that if a stimulus is followed closely in time by a US that elicits a UR, then the previously neutral stimulus will also tend to elicit that response in the future

    - Doesn't produce a new behavior

    - Causes an existing behavior to occur

    - New Stimulus-Response sequence is learned
  26. Unconditioned Stimuli (US)
    a stimulus that elicits a response without prior learning or conditioning
  27. Unconditioned Response (UR)
    a response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus
  28. Conditioned Response (CR)
    a response elicited by a conditioned stimulus 
  29. Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
    a stimulus that elicits a response because that stimulus has been paired with another stimulus that elicits that response
  30. Aversion Therapy
    procedures involving the use of adversive stimulation - the repeated pairing of a troublesome reinforcer with an aversive stimulation

    *pair aversive event with an undesirable behavior
  31. Counterconditioning
    conditioning a new response to a CS at the same time as the former CR is being extinguished
  32. Respondent Extinction
    presenting a CS while withholding the US

    the CS will gradually lose its capability of eliciting the CR

    - i.e. barking/the fear of seeing dogs/dogshow
  33. Biological Preparedness
    predisposition of members of a species to be more readily conditioned to some stimuli as CS than to others

    (i.e. taste aversion)
  34. Respondent component of Emotion
    inward reaction one feels during the experience of emotion
  35. Operant component of Emotion
    the way an emotion is outwardly expressed or disguised
  36. learning history
    Displays of emotion depend on ___ ___ - (operant conditioning at play)
  37. Happiness
    Presentation of reinforcers elicit the emotion ___
  38. Anger
    The withholding of reinforcers elicits the emotion ___
  39. Anxiety
    The presentation of aversive stimuli elicits the emotion ___
  40. Relief
    The removal or withholding of aversive stimuli elicits the emotion ___
  41. Stimulus Generalization
    1 response to many stimuli

    when a behavior becomes more probable in a situation because it's been reinforced in a different but similar situation
  42. Response Generalization
    1 stimulus with many responses

    when a behavior becomes more probable in a situation because a different but similar behavior was reinforced in that situation
  43. Functionally Equivalent Responses
    different responses that produce the same consequences
  44. Behavioral Momentum
    a momentary increase in the probability of some response occuring as a result of one or more functionally equivalent responses having been reinforced
  45. Behavioral Trap(ping)
    "maintenance" of a behavior

    a contingency in which a behavior that has been developed by programmed reinforcers is maintained by natural reinforcers
Card Set
PSY 421 Exam 3