thera II test II anemia

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  1. hormone kidney's secrete in response to low tissue  oxygen levels
  2. building materials for RBC's
    • amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids
    • iron
    • folate
    • B12
  3. what transports iron to be incorporated into hemoglobin
  4. immature RBC's secreted from the marrow to the blood circulation
  5. measure of the increase or decrease in the number of reticulocytes, representing the RBC production by the bone marrow
    retic count
  6. mature reticulocytes and transport and protect Hgb
  7. extracted iron that is stored in the macrophages
  8. breakdown product of Hgb that is conjugated in the liver
  9. when the total quantity of iron exceeds the amount that can be stored as ferritin, the excess iron is stored in an insoluble form called
  10. refers to how much iron the transferrin present in the blood can bind
    total iron binding capacity (TIBC)
  11. 3 mechanism of anemia
    • excessive blood loss
    • inadequate production
    • excessive destruction
  12. 3 acute causes of excessive blood loss
    • trauma
    • ulcer
    • hemorrhoids
  13. 3 chronic causes of excessive blood loss
    • ulcer
    • vaginal bleeding
    • aspirin ingestion
  14. 4 causes of inadequate production
    • nutritional deficiency
    • erythroblast deficiency
    • endocrine deficiency
    • chronic disease
  15. 2 intrinsic factors of excessive destruction
    • hereditary
    • abnormal Hgb synthesis
  16. 3 extrinsic causes of excessive destruction
    • autoimmune reactions
    • drug reactions
    • infection
  17. 3 ways anemia's are classified
    • morphology
    • etiology
    • pathophysiology
  18. 2 catergories of RBC morphology
    • RBC size - "cytic"
    • Hgb content (color) - "chromic"
  19. normocytic anemia
    RBC production is not disturbed, but rate of production is inadequate
  20. microcytic anemia
    disease state where cytoplasmic production of Hgb is delayed relative to nuclear maturation
  21. macrocytic anemia
    disease state where nuclear maturation is delayed relative to cytoplasmic production of Hgb
  22. normal lab values for Hgb
    • female - 12.3 - 15.3 g/dl
    • male - 14 - 17.5 g/dl
  23. WHO anemia diagnosis for anemia
    • male < 13 g/dl
    • menstruating female < 12 g/dl
    • pregnant female < 11 g/dl
  24. percent volume of RBC's in relation to total blood volume
    hematocrit Hct
  25. average volume (size) of RBC
    mean cell volume (MCV)
  26. measure of average weight of Hgb in RBC
    reflects adequacy of iron supply
    • mean corpuscular Hgb (MCH)
    • can't distinguish between microcytosis and hypochromia
  27. average concentration of Hgb in each RBC
    mean corpuscular Hgb concentration (MCHC)
  28. what does low MCHC mean
  29. variation in RBC volume
    RBC distribution width RDW
  30. what test is useful indetecting mixed anemias
  31. what do you do if you get an elevated retic count
    corrected retic count = retic count x (patients HCT/ normal HCT)
  32. test that is a function of RBC production and bone marrow function
    retic count
  33. indirect measurment of serum transferrin
    normally 3x iron
    total iron binding capacity TIBC
  34. the percentage of sites on transferrin that have iron bound to them
    transferrin saturation TSAT
  35. low serum ferritin levels indicate
    iron deficiency
  36. low B12 indicates
    pernicious anemia
  37. what must B12 be bound to in order to be absorbed in the GI tract
    intrinsic factor
  38. test used to detect intrinsic factor deficiency
    schilling test
  39. test that shows the functional status of RBC and based on appearance
    peripheral smear
  40. 2 causes of microcytic anemia
    • iron deficiency anemia
    • anemia of chronic disease
  41. leading cause of anemia
    iron deficiency
  42. decreased MCV
    • iron deficiency
    • anemia of chronic disease
  43. decreased serum iron
    • iron deficiency
    • anemia of chronic disease
  44. decreased ferritin
    iron deficiency
  45. increased TIBC
    iron deficiency
  46. decreased TIBC
    anemia of chronic disease
  47. increased MCV
    • vit B12 deficiency
    • folic acid deficiency
    • sickle cell anemia
  48. decreased retic count
    • anemia of chronic disease
    • vit B12 deficiency
    • folic acid deficiency
  49. increased retic count
    • G6PD
    • sickle cell anemia
  50. MCB WNL
  51. retic count WNL
    iron deficiency
  52. 5 medications that can alter folic acid
    • hydroxyurea
    • methotrexate
    • triamterene
    • barbiturates
    • phenytoin
  53. 18 drugs that can cause hemolytic anemia
    • APAP
    • ACEI's
    • cephalosporins
    • fluoroquinolones
    • HCTZ
    • isoniazid
    • ketoconazole
    • levodopa
    • NSAIDs
    • methyldopa
    • penicillins
    • probenacid
    • procainamide
    • PPIs
    • quinidine
    • rifampin
    • sulfonamides
    • tetracycline
  54. 3 drugs to avoid in G6PD deficiency
    • nitrofurantoin
    • sulfamethoxazole
    • metformin
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thera II test II anemia
thera II test II anemia
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