Chest and Lungs

  1. apnea
    absence of spontaneous respiration
  2. asthma (reactive airway disease)
    small airway obstruction due to inflammation and hyperreactive airways
  3. atelectasis
    incomplete expansion of the lungs at birth, or collapse of the lung at any age
  4. biot respirations
    • irregular breaths varying in depth and interrupted by intervals of apnea but lacking repetitive pattern
    • associated with increased intracranial pressure
  5. bronchiectasis
    chronic dilation of the bronchi or bronchioles cause by repeated pulmonary infections and/or bronchial obstructions
  6. bronchitis
    inflammation of the large airways
  7. bronchophony
    greater clarity and increased loudness of spoken words
  8. bronchovesicular breath sounds
    • typically moderate in intensity
    • heard over major bronchi
  9. bronchiolitis
    • inflammation leading to hyperinflation of the lungs
    • occurs most often in infants younger than 6 months old
  10. cheyne-strokes respiration
    • intervals of apnea followed by crescendo/decrescendo sequence of breathing
    • often associated with dying
  11. chronic bronchitis
    • large airway inflammation that is usually a result of chronic irritation exposure
    • more commonly a problem for patients older than 40 years
  12. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    nonspecific diagnosis that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema
  13. cor pulmonale
    an acute or chronic condition involving right-sided heart failure
  14. cough
    sudden spasmodic expiration forcing a sudden opening of the glottis
  15. crackles
    • abnormal lung sounds, most often heard on inspiration
    • characterized by discrete discontinuous sounds
    • also called rales
  16. croup
    • syndrome generally results from infection with a variety of viral agents particularly the parainfluenza viruses
    • occurs most often in children between 1 1/2 and 3 years of age
  17. cystic fibrosis
    autosomal recessive disorder of exocrine glands involving the lungs, pancreas, and sweat glands
  18. diaphragmatic hernia
    an abnormal opening in the diaphragm
  19. egophony
    increased intensity of spoken sound with accompanying nasal quality
  20. emphysema
    disease in which the lungs lose elasticity and the alveoli enlarge in a way that disrupts function
  21. empyema
    collection of purulent exudative fluid in the pleural space
  22. epiglottitis
    acute life-threatening infection involving the epiglottis and surrounding tissues
  23. friction rub
    dry, crackly, grating, low-pitched sound that occurs outside the respiratory tree
  24. hamman sign
    • mediastinal crunch
    • consists of a variety of sounds, including loud crackles and clicking or gurgling sounds
    • associated with mediastinal emphysema
  25. hemothroax
    presence of blood in the pleural cavity
  26. influenza
    viral infection of the lungs
  27. kussmaul breathing
    • deep and usually rapid respirations
    • associated with metabolic acidosis
  28. lung abscess
    a well-define circumscribed mass defined by inflammation, suppuration, and subsequent central necrosis
  29. pectoriloquy
    • a whisper that can be clearly heard through the stethoscope
    • associated with consolidation of lungs
  30. pleural effusion
    presence of excessive nonpurulent fluid in the pleural space
  31. pleurisy
    inflammatory process involving the visceral and parietal pleura, which become edmatous and fibrinous
  32. pneumonia
    inflammatory response of the bronchioles and alveoli to an infective agent which can be bacterial, fungal, or viral
  33. pneumothorax
    presence of air or gas in the pleural cavity
  34. pulmonary embolism
    • occlusion of the pulmonary arteries
    • relatively common condition that is very difficult to diagnose
  35. respiratory distress syndrome
    condition that develops in preterm infants as a result of surfactant deficiency
  36. rhonchi
    sonorous wheezes
  37. stridor
    high-pitched piercing sound heard during inspiration
  38. tracheomalacia
    a "floppiness" or lack of rigidiy of the trachea or airway
  39. tuberculosis
    chronic infectious disease that most often begins in the lung but may have widespread systemic manifestations
  40. vesicular
    low-pitched, low-intensity sounds heard over healthy tissue
  41. vocal resonance
    • sound of the spoken word as transmitted through the lung fields
    • usually muffled and indistinct in quality
  42. wheeze
    • continuous, high-pitched musical sound; almost a whistle
    • heard on inspiration or expiration
Card Set
Chest and Lungs
H.A. test five