Reciprocity (chp 7, p 144-45)
The Transfer of goods for goods between two or more individuals or groups.
Individuals or groups pass products back and forth, with the aim of helping someone in need by sharing with him/her, creating, maintaining or strengthening social relationships or obtaining products made by others or one's self.
Generalized reciprocity (chp 7, p 146)
the giving of goods without expectation of a return of equal value at any definite future time.
ex: parents and children, wives and husbands, sometimes close friends, hunters and gatherers
Balanced Reciprocity (chp 7 p 146-47)
The exchange of goods considered to have roughly equal value; social purposes usually motivate the exchange
has a specified time
Ex: New guinea, ju'hoansi
negative reciprocity (chp 7 p 149)
exchange motivated by the desire to obtain goods, in which the parties try to gain all the material goods they can.
Minimal cost as possible
Market economy, market, market globalization
How people make their living
Exchange by means of buying and selling using money
the producers and the consumers are nearly different and products are exchanged. most products are produced entirely for exchange
Market economy means that the whole economy is organized on market principles:
all privately owned goods and services have a monetary price (bought and sold)
Most people make their living by selling something on the market, to consumers,
The market allocates the factors of production (supply and demand)
The economy is self-regulating
Globalization- process through which the world's national economies become integrated into a single global exchange system organized by market principles
Redistribution (chp 7, p 145)
The collection of goods or money from a group, followed by a reallocation to the group by central authority.
Resources collected from many individuals are taken to a central place and put into a common pool or fund. A higher authority draws from the pool and returns the public goods and services to the whole group.
ex: taxes, retail sales, income and assests.
Consanguines (chp 8 p 164)
Blood relatives or people related by birth
parents, siblings, grandparents, parent's siblings, cousins
affines (chp 8 p 164)
In-laws or people related by marriage
sister's husband, wife's mother, and father's sister's husband
Kin (chp 8, p 164)
a group of people who culturally conceive themselves to be relatives, cooperate in certain activities, and share a sense of identity as kinfolk.
Nuclear family (chp 8 p 164)
family group consisting of a married couple and their offspring.
Married couple with their unmarried children
Extended family (chp 8 p 165)
a group of related nuclear families
Distant relatives: aunts, cousins, uncles
fictive kinship (chp 8, p 165)
condition in which people who are not biologically related behave as if they are relatives of a certain type.
ex: adoption, roommates,
Exogamous rules (chp 8, 173)
marriage rules prohibiting individuals from marrying a member of their own social group or category.
Prohibited from marrying within the own family, kin, village, or settlement.
Endogamous rules (chp 8, 173)
Marriage rules requiring individuals to marry some member of their own social group or category.
Hindu India, orthodox jews, during slavery, to maintain social barriers, social ranks, strengthens the exclusiveness of the endogamous group by preventing the contamination of outsiders.
Monogamy (chp 8, 174)
in which every individual is allowed one spouse
Polgyny (chp 8 174)
one man is allowed to have multiple wives
polyandry (chp 8, 174)
one woman is allowed to have multiple husbands
Polygamy (chp 8, 174)
dowry (chp 8 ,182)
custom in which the family of a woman transfers property or wealth to her and/or her husband's family upon her marriage
Unilineal descent (chp 9 194)
descent through "one-line" including patrilineal and matrilineal descent
Patrilineal descent (chp 9, 194)
form of the descent in which individual's trace their most important kinship relations through their fathers.
Matrilineal Descent (chp 9, 194)
form of the descent in which individual's trace their most important kinship relations through their mothers.
Lineages (chp 9, 197)
a unilineal descent group larger than an extended family whose members can actually trace how they are related.
clans (chp 9, 197)
a named unilineal descent group, some of whose members are unable to trace how they are related, but who still believe themselves to be kinfolk. They believe they come from a common ancestor through the male or female line.
Bilateral kinship (chp 9, 204)
kinship system in which individuals trace their kinship relationships equally through both parents.
Cross cousins (chp 9, 196)
parents are siblings of opposite sex, so your cross cousins are your father's sisters' children, and your mother's brothers' children.
Parallel Cousins (chp 9, 196)
if parents are siblings of the same sex, so your cousins would be your mother's sisters' children or your father's brothers' children.
Life course (chp 10,224)
The changes in expected activities, roles, rights, obligations, and social relationships individuals experience as they move through culturally defined age categories.
Infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, old age.
Gender (chp 11, 239)
the idea that the characterisitcs of a people attribute to males and females are culturally, not biologically determined.
sex (chp 11)
sex is biologically determined
physical differences based on genetic differences between females and males.
Gender (sex) roles (chp 11, 249)
the rights and duties individual's have because of their perceived identities as males, females, or other gender categories.
gendered (sexual) division of labor (chp 11, 249)
the kinds of productive activities assiged to women vs men in culture
Fertility (chp 11, 252)
strenuous, prolonged, physical exercise by women leads to lowered body fat and hormonal changes that reduce female fertility, so most strenuous tasks are done by males.
band (chp 12, 270)
a small foraging group with flexible composition that migrates seasonally
simple band (chp 12, 270)
autonomous or independent political units, often consisting of little more than an extended family, with informal leadership vested in one of the older family members
composite bands (chp 12, 270)
autonomous political units consisting of several extended families that live together for most or all of the year
tribes (chp 12, 272)
an autonomous political unit encompassing a number of distinct, geographically dispersed communities held together by sodalities
chiefdoms (chp 12, 273)
centralized political systems with authority vested in formal, usually hereditary offices or titles.
state (chp 12, 275)
a centralized, multilevel political unit characterized by the presence of a bureaucracy that acts on behalf of the ruling elite.
egalitarian society (chp 13, 292)
form of society in which there is little inequality in access to culturally valued rewards.Prevent people from becoming too big.
aka, ju'hoansi, hopi, hadza, bambuti
wealth (chp 13, 301)
the most widely accepted approach to stratisfaction uses the concept of economic class is largely dependent on wealth.
Wealth is more measurable than other indications of class membership
wealth is the singe indication of the overall benefits individuals and families are receiving from citizenship in the nation
high wealth is generally correlated with ownership of productive resources such as factories, financial institutions, and real-estate.
Wealth levels broadly determine people's access to political power.
ranked society (chp 13, 292)
society that has a limited number of high-ranking social positions that grant authority; groups are ranked relative to one another with the highest rank bringing the highest rewards in prestige, power and sometimes wealth.
stratified society (chp 13, 292)
society with marked and largely or partly heritable differences in access to wealth, power, and prestige; inequality is based mainly on unequal access to productive and valued resources
class (chp 13, 295)
system of stratisfaction in which membership in a stratum can theoretically be altered and intermarriage between strata is allowed.
caste (chp 13, 295)
stratifaction system in which membership in a stratum is in theory hereditary, strata are endogamous and contact or relationship among members of different strata are governed by explicit laws, norms, or prohibitions
Indigenous peoples (chp 7, 158)
- are groups whose ancestors lived in a particular region until they came
- into contact with outsiders who were more powerful and wealthy than
How to make a living?
Money (cp 7, 153)
objects that serve as media of exchange in a wide range of transactions of goods, services (including labor), or both.
eskimo kinship system
Mother, father, The term aunt is used for both ego's father's sisters and mother's sisters and the term for uncle is the brothers of the parents as well. same as american culture.
Rites of passage (chp 10, 224)
a public ceremony or ritual recognizing and making a transition from one group or status to another
cultural norms and values and how they help form the individual
the development of a human being requires the social learning of culture. (enculturation = socialization).
Biological makeup and total life experiences makes each person unique in some respects.
father's and mother's split the duty of child care, very involved and spoil their children.
hunters and gatherers
growing crops and livestock
infants are not allowed to cry
- carried on mother's back while doing work
- other children watch the kids.
hua of papua New guinea and nu (chp 11, 242)
They believe that bodies contain a life giving substance called nu.
females contain lots of nu (grow faster and age slowly, more moist)
males contain a smaller amount (dry, stronger)
giving nu to a man through intercourse is harmful , and the women gains strength.
encouraged to eat foods that contain nu.When they get older nu doesn't harm them as much.
women lose nu when they menstruate, cook, and give babies. Become less and less dangerous to men depending on how many children they have.
Inca Political organization
the central government was able to organize human labor for massive public works. The inca empire was a state created by the military conquest. any son of the inca had a legitimate claim to the thrown.
regions wee divided into provinces with governors and regional capitals. Each unit had an official head responsible to the person above him.
land was divided . Families were suppose to supply labor
Two-spirited (chp 11, 244)/berdaches
Native americans refereed two spirits as persons who had both female and male sporots. Man-woman, woman-man or third gender persons
claiming that the main influences on cultural differences and similarities are technology environment and how people produce and distribute resources
income and wealth
the income and wealth gap between the very rich and the very poor is enourmous in the U.S.
the difference between the net worth of the very rich and everyone else is much larger than the gap in annual incomes
the family of a woman transfers wealth to thier daughter and husband