Ethics Test #3 Review

  1. Specific Deterrence
    Focuses on the specific individual who committed the crime
  2. General Deterrence
    Focuses on general prevention of a crime by making examples of specific individuals
  3. Teleological Ethics (Utilitarianism)
    - Mills

    - The end result
  4. Virtue Ethics
    - Aristotle

    - The end result but also "moral man"
  5. Deontology (Formalism)
    - Kant

    - The act itself
  6. Recidivism Rates for Murders
    Approximately 1.2%
  7. Cost Effectiveness of LWOP vs. Death Penalty
    • - Prison (LWOP)
    •   • $52/day = ~20k/year = $900k for 35 years

    • - Death Row
    •   • ~$2.5 to $5 million
  8. Percentage of US Executions that Took Place in Texas
    - ~60% (or 37%) of all US executions take place in Texas
  9. Probation
    • Before a person is actually sent to prison/jail
    • Guilty but suspended sentence
    • If compliant
    • If not compliant
  10. Parole
    • After a defendant is released from prison
    • Many of the same controls or safeguards as probation
  11. Services that Probation/Parole Officers (PPOs) Provide to Clients
    - Housing, job placement, counseling, education
  12. Methods of Controlling that PPOs Use on Clients
    - Drug testing, curfew, location monitoring
  13. Effectiveness of Probation/Parole
    • • Probation Effectiveness Varies by State
    •  - Over half arrested within 2 years
    •    ○ 20-65% rearrested within 2 years

    • • Parole Effectiveness Also Varies
    •  - Slight advantage over release directly from prison
  14. Intensive Supervision
    • • Reduced caseload, greater supervision, more contact
    • • No Difference between intense and routine supervision
    • • Ethical Concerns
    •  - Letter of the law vs spirit of the law
    •  - Privacy issues
    •  - Social worker or police
    •  - Unending supervision
    •  - Prison easier
    •  - Cost & class bias
  15. Traditional Supervision
    • Probation/Parole officers overworked
    • Spread thin v. help the "helpable" and ignore the rest
  16. Arguments for and Against Privatizing Probation/Parole
    • For Privatizing:
    • • Private enterprise can do things more efficiently
    • • Privatizing reduces costs
    • • Design carefully devised contract
    •   - Monitor implementation

    • Against Privatizing:
    • • Government can be efficient/effective
    • • Profit motive debase corrections
    • • Client "shopping"
    • • Contract termination - need another provider ready and willing to step in
    • • Who will monitor contract
    • • Ethical considerations
  17. Pros/cons of the Use of Volunteers in Probation/Parole Offices
    • • Responsible to Use Volunteers in the First Place?
    •  - To save money/replace probation & parole officers
    •   ○ Reduces jobs for professional corrections
    •   ○ Clients do not receive professional assistance
    •   ○ Volunteers sufficiently trained, supervised, accountable 

    • - To supplement probation/parole program
    •   ○ May enhance program
    •   ○ Establish "one on one" relationships with offenders
    •   ○ Volunteers may have special skills/training
  18. Restorative Justice Questions
    • • Victims
    •  - How do you feel?
    •  - What do you need to move toward wholeness?

    • • Community
    •  - How was the community harmed? 
    •  - How was the community responsible?
    •  - How can the community repair any damages?

    • • Offender
    •  - Why did you choose crime?
    •  - What will make the choice less likely in the future
    •  - What can you do to repair the harm you caused?
  19. Standard CRJ System Questions
    • • "Just the facts, ma'am"
    •  - What happened
    •  - Who did it
    •  - What does the person deserve
  20. The 3 Hallmarks of Restorative Justice
    • • Encounter between victim & offender
    •  - With trained facilitator
    •   ○ May be in person or via letter, video 3rd party
    •  - Discuss event, the harm & how to set things right

    • • Repair the harm
    •  - Offender does what he/she can to make things right
    •   ○ Restitution, apology, changed behavior, acts of generosity, etc.

    • • Transformation
    •  - Offender become contributing member of society
    •  - Victim can heal and thrive
    •  - Increased informal social control
    •   ○ Communities "police" themselves
  21. Benefits of Restorative Justice
    • • Fewer people struggling with aftermath of crime
    •  - Less PTSD (post traumatic syndrome?)
    •  - Revenge less likely
    •  - Return to "normal"

    • • Hold responsible party (parties) personally responsible
    •  - Takes courage

    • • Trying to reduce future crimes
    •  - Parties may learn from event
  22. Drawbacks of Restorative Justice
    • Inefficient

    • Offender/victim may refuse to participate 

    • Victim "requests" may be unreasonable/irrational/impossible

    • Harm may be irreparable

    • What about victimless crimes 

    • • May wind up with very disparate "sentences"
    •  - CRJ System loses control

    • Need both systems

    • What about "disorganized" communities
  23. The 3 Mandatory Elements of Corruption
    • - Employee
    • - Violation of Rules
    • - Personal Gain
  24. Examples of Correctional Corruption
    • • Theft/Embezzlement
    •  - From . . . Prison/inmates

    • • Trafficking in Contraband
    •  - Ex. Drugs, weapons, money, cell phones

    • • Misuse of authority
    •  - Ex: gratuities, perjury, abuse

    • • Misc
    •  - Ex: sleep/drunk on duty, condoning above
  25. The 2 Major Influences on Corruption
    • • Opportunity
    •  - Discretion

    • • Incentive
    •  - Internal vs. External
  26. Corruption Impact on Correctional Facilities
    • • Internal
    •  - Safety
    •  - Morale
    •  - Ethics

    • • External
    •  - Public Image
    •  - Finances
  27. How Can Corruption Be Controlled
    • • Standards
    •  - Uniformly known
    •  - Consistently applied
    •  - Non-selective enforced

    • • Awareness/Openness
    •  - ID opportunities
    •  - Increase risk for corrupt practices
    •  - Whistleblower mechanism
  28. Issues Concerning Female Prisoners
    • • Fewer opportunities for education and training
    •  - Equal treatment education & training?

    • • Additional Services
    •  - 85-90% have history of domestic & sexual abuse
    •  - Parental & reproductive rights
  29. Female Correctional Personnel
    • • Admin & Officers
    •  - 37% of adult correctional personnel
    •  - 51% of juvenile correctional personnel

    • • Issues
    •  - Safety
    •  - Sex
    •  - Glass Ceiling
  30. Disproportion of Minority in Population Vs. Prison
    • • US Population: 
    •  - 69% White, 13.5% Black, 17% Hispanic

    • • Prison Population:
    •  - 33% White, 40% Black, 20% Hispanic
  31. Sending Juveniles to Adult Prison
    • 30-77% higher recidivism rate

    • No deterrent effect

    • "Crime College"
  32. Elderly Prisoners
    • What's the Point:
    •  - Incapacitation
    •  - Rehabilitation
    •  - Threat to society
    •  - Cost
  33. Percentage of Inmates that Suffer from Mental Illness
    • • ~50% of inmates suffer from mental illness
    •  - 3.7% psychotic illness
    •  - 10% major depression
    •  - 65% personality disorder
  34. Treatment of Mentally Ill in Jails/Prisons
    • • Mental Health Treatment
    •  - 1/3 prison mates
    •  - 1/6 jail inmates
  35. Programs Offered in Prison to Ready Inmates for Release
    • - Educational
    • - Religious
    • - Counseling
    • - Enhancement
Author
XDragonFire23X
ID
210769
Card Set
Ethics Test #3 Review
Description
Death Penalty Community Corrections Restorative Justice Correctional Corruption Various Issues
Updated