PLSC Lab Five

  1. Seed dispersal
    Fruits evolved to aid in this
  2. Protection
    Cones and flowers provide developing seeds with this from frequently dry environments.
  3. Perinth
    Consists of several modified leaves (mutliples of 3 in monocots, or mutliples of 4 or 5 in dicots), normally arranged in two layers. The sepals which constitute the calyx, and the petals which constitute the corolla
  4. Sepals
    Outermost layer of the perinth, it constitutes the calyx
  5. Petal
    The innermost perinth, which constitutes the corolla.  Typically these are larger and more colorful then the sepals.
  6. Tepals
    When the sepals and petals are similar in size and appearance. (tulips)
  7. Receptacle
    Where all the parts of the flower are attached to.
  8. Peduncle
    A specialized stem which the receptacle is at the end of.  Analogous to the petiole of leaves
  9. Nectaries
    Tissue swellings near the receptacle, and each nectary secretes a sugar-rich solution to attract pollinating animals
  10. Stamens
    Colectively represent structures designed to disseminated haploid pollen grains.  Each stamen is composed of a stem-like filament, atop which is an anther.  Anthers may have one or several lobes, and also vary in size and shape, from small spheres to irregular and elongated sacs.  The anther contains pollen grains, and releases these grains for wind, insects, hummingbirds, bats, moths, bees, or other pollinators to carry to the ovule-bearing parts of other flowers.
  11. Pistils
    Collectively represent structures designed to contain haploid ovules, support fertilization and development of diploid embryos. Morphologically each pistil consists of an enlarges ovary towards the base, a narrower style above, feeding to a surface known as the stigma where pollen grains will attach and germinated to form pollen tubes. Anatomically, the ovary is a chamber formed from highly modified leaves called carpels. An ovary may be composed of one carpel, in which case a single chamber or locule will form, and all ovules will be attached to the former midrib of the carpel, now known as a placenta. Some ovaries have more than one carpel, sometimes indicated by the number of separate locules or placentas.  Sometimes the only way to tell two closely related species apart is the number and arrangement of structures within an ovary.  Some species also have multiple pistils on a single receptacle.
  12. Axile placentation
    Occurs when the ovules are attached to a central column of tissue
  13. Complete flowers
    Have all features present.  Calyx, corolla, stamen and pistils
  14. Incomplete
    When one or more features are missing from a flower: Calyx, corolla, stamen, or pistil
  15. Perfect
    If both stamens and pistils are present
  16. Imperfect
    If either the stamens or the pistil are missing
  17. Staminate flower
    When a flower is only composed of stamens
  18. Pistillate flower
    When only a pistil is present
  19. Monoecious
    A plant that contains both staminate and pistillate flowers. eg. corn
  20. Dioecious
    When a species is restricted to either male or female flowers, such as populars or willows
  21. Actinomorphic
    A flower that has radially symmetrical flower parts, you can slice through it anywhere and still have a mirror image
  22. Zygomorphic
    Bilaterally symmetrical, so a slice through on only one pane will produce a mirror image
  23. Hypogynous
    When the ovary is in a superior position and the perianth and stamens are attached to the receptacle
  24. Epigynous
    When the ovary is in an inferior position and the perianth and stamens are attached to the top of the ovary
  25. Grass type flowers
    • Different names for most parts.  Are wind pollinated, smaller and less showy.
    • Two bracts called glumes enclose ech grass spikelet, and one or more floret may occur on each spikelet. Each floret is composed of 2 more bracts, one called the palea of which the flower parts are inserted, and the other called a lemma that partially covers the palea. 
    • The parts of a grass flower consist of anther and stigmas.
    • The ovary may or may not be obscured by a pair of lodicules. Lodicules are thought to be vestigial parts of the perianth and are responsible for opening and closing the flowers.  The number of stamens and stigmas varies from species to species, but usually there are 3 stamens and 2 stigmas
  26. Asteraceae Flowers
    Species of this family have multiple ovaries inserted on a single large receptacle called a capitulum. Some of the flowers have a showy perianth composed of fused or reduced petals, and are called ligulate (tongue-like) flowers.  Often these ligulate flowers lack sexual organs and only function to attract pollinating insects.  Other flowers posses a reduced perianth, are specialized for reproduction, and are called disk flowers. Some species have an outer ring of ligulate flowers with a central portion of disk flowers (sunflowers), while other species have mostly ligulate flowers
  27. 3 separate regions in fruit
    • Exocarp skin of fruit
    • Mesocarp the fleshy part
    • Endocarp Is the inner part which encloses the seed. 
    • These all make up the pericarp
  28. Simple Fruits
    Fruits that develop from a single flower with a single pistil
  29. Multiple fruit
    Fruits that develop from several to many individual flowers in one inflorescence; each flower has a receptacle but as individual flowers mature separately into fruitlets, they develop into a larger fruit (pineapple, mulberries)
  30. Aggregate Fruit
    Develops from a single flower which has several to many pistils; on raspberry and blackberry individual pistils develop into tiny drupes or druplets; on strawberry, the fruit develops from a single receptacle
  31. Accessory Fruit
    Develop from a flower but also has accessory tissues such as a receptacle which becomes fleshy and red while each pistil becomes a little achene (dry fruit)
  32. Fleshy Fruit
    • Have a fleshy mesocarp or a partly fleshy mesocarp at maturity
    • 1. Berry (berry, pepo, hesperidium)
    • 2. Drupe
    • 3. Pome
    • 4. Syconium
  33. Berry, 3 types
    The berry is one example of a fleshy fruit and is defined as a compound ovary which contains more than one seed; has a fleshy pericarp; and it is hard to distinguish between mesocarp and endocarp
  34. Berry (a type of berry)
    Fruit having a thin skin, a soft pericarp, with usually more than one seed (tomato, grape, pepper, eggplant, banana, blueberry, cranberry, and pomegranate
  35. Pepo
    Berry having a thick skin or rind; from flowers that have an inferior ovary. (melon or pumpkin family)
  36. Hesperidium
    Berry with a leathery skin containing oils; mesocarp composed of juicy tissue that grows out from the lining of ovary wall (citrus fruits)
  37. Drupe
    • A simple, fleshy fruit with a  single seed enclosed by hard, stone endocarp. (almond, avocado, plum, peach, necatrine
    • Note: the single, individual fruit of a raspberry and blackberry which contains a seed is called a druplet
  38. Pome
    Simple, fleshy fruit have an enlarged receptacle that grows up and around the ovary (apple, pears, quince)
  39. Syconium
    A multiple fleshy fruit in which the ovaries are borne within an enlarged receptacle (fig)
  40. Dry Fruits
    These fruits develop from a single ovary and have a mesocarp that is dry at maturity.  It is often difficult to distinguish between the exocarp, mesocarp, and endocarp.  With this group there are the fruits that split and those that remain whole.
  41. Dry fruits that split
    • 1. Follicle
    • 2. Legume
    • 3. Silique
    • 4. Silicle
    • 5. Capsule
    • 6. Loment
  42. Follicle
    • Dry fruit that splits at maturity
    • Splits along one side only (larkspur, monkshood, columbine, milkweed)
  43. Legume
    • Dry fruit that splits at maturity
    • Splits along two sides
  44. Silique
    • Dry fruit that splits at maturity
    • Splits along 2 sides but seeds are borne on a central partition (translucent septum) separating the 2 carpels; fruit more than twice as long as wide (Canola)
  45. Silicle
    • Dry fruit that splits at maturity
    • Same as silique except that fruit is less than twice as long as wide. (stinkweed, shepherd's purse)
  46. Capsule
    • Dry fruit that splits at maturity
    • Consists of two or more carpels that split in a variety of ways and not having a translucent septum. (poppies, iris, orchid, lily, snapdragon)
  47. Loment
    • Dry fruit that splits at maturity
    • Fruit composed of a single carpel with obvious constrictions between the seeds (radish, Hedysarum spp)
  48. Fruits that don't split at maturity
    • 1 Achene
    • 2 Nut
    • 3 Nutlet
    • 4 Grain or Caryopsis
    • 5 Samara
    • 6 Shizocarp
  49. Achene
    • Fruit that don't split
    • Simple seed attached to its pericarp only at its base. (strawberry "pips", sunflower "seeds")
    • Edible kernel plus the husk = achene
  50. Nut
    • Fruit that don't split
    • Single seed similar to an achene but generally larger and the pericarp much harder and thicker (chestnut, acrons, hazel nuts)
  51. Nutlet
    • Fruit that don't split
    • Similar to a nut but smaller (tilia nutlets)
  52. Grain or Caryopsis
    • Fruit that don't split
    • Pericarp is fussed to the seed and cannot be separated from it.  (all members of the grass family including corn)
  53. Samara
    • Fruit that don't split
    • Pericarp extends out into a wind or membrane which aides in dispersal (elm, maple, Fraxinus ash)
  54. Schizocarp
    Twin fruit of the parsley family which break into two one-seeded segments upon drying
  55. Spike
    Unbranched, flowers are attached directly to the central axis (wheat)
  56. Raceme
    Unbranched, flowers are attached by pedicels to the central axis (radish)
  57. Panicle
    Branched raceme (rice)
  58. Umbel
    • Flowers attach by pedicels which arise from a common point
    • Simple (onion) or compound (carrot)
  59. Corymb
    • Unbranched, pedicels of unequal length alternately attached along central axis
    • Forms a flat topped cluster (cherry)
  60. Head
    Peduncle with flowers attached directly to a broad receptacle (sunflower)
  61. Spikelets
    Perianth reduced to paired bracts
  62. Spadix
    Perianth not reduced to pairs, inflorescence usually erect, bixsual with thick axis
  63. Catkin or ament
    Inflorescence usually pendulous, unisexual, lacking thick axis
  64. Hypanthodium
    Flowers enclosed within the walls of a concase capitulum
  65. Cyme
    Inforescence determinate, the central or terminal flower develops first
  66. Thyrse
    Flowers densely clustered in a compact, cylindrical or ovate inflorescence
Card Set
PLSC Lab Five