What is a database?
A database is a self-describing collection of integrated records
Hierarchy of data element:
- Fields a.k.a. (columns)
- Records a.k.a. (rows)
- Tables a.k.a. (files)
What are Bytes?
Bytes are; (1) A character of data; (2) an 8-bit chunk
What are fields?
Fields, also called columns are groups of bytes in a database table. A database table has multiple columns that are used to represent the attributes of an entity. Examples are Partnumber, EmployeeName, and SalesDate.
What are examples of fields?
- Part Number
- Employee Name
- Sales Date
What are Records?
Records, which are also called a rows, is a group of columns in a database table.
What are tables?
Tables which are also called a file, a group of similar rows or records in a database.
What are the three components of a database?
What Are Relationships Among Rows?
Columns are also called fields. columns or fields, in turn, are grouped into rows, which are also called records. A database is a collection of tables plus relationships among the rows in those tables, plus special data, called Metadata.
What is a relationship?
An association among entities or entity instances of an E-R model or an association among rows of a table in a relational database.
What is Metadata?
Metadata is data that describes data.
What are foreign keys?
A column or group of columns used to represent relationships. Values of the foreign key math values of the primary key in a different (foreign) table.
What is a key?
Also know as a primary key. (1) A column or group of columns that identifies a unique row in a table. (2) A number used to encrypt data. The Encryption algorithm applies the key to the original message to produce the coded message. Decoding (decrypting) a message is similar; a key is applied to the coded message to recover the original text.
What is a Database Management Systems (DBMS)?
A program for creating, processing, and administering a database. A DBMS is a large and complex program that is licensed like an operating system. Microsoft Access, and Oracle are example of DBMS products.
Functions of a DBMS - What are those functions?
Database developers use the DBMS to create and modify tables,relationships, and other structures in the database.
What Are the Components of a Database Application System?
Formatted reports, queries, and application programs.
What is a database application?
Forms, reports, queries, and application programs for processing a database. A database can be processed by many different database applications.
What are forms? (database applications)
Data entry forms are used to read, insert, modify, and delete database data.
What are reports? (database applications)
A presentation of data in a structured or meaningful context.
What are queries? (database applications)
A request for data from a database.
Structured Query Language?
SQL An international standard language for processing database data.
What does SQL stand for?
Structured Query Language
What is a data model?
A logical representation of the data in a database that describes the data and relationships that will be stored in the database. Akin to a blueprint
Entity-Relationship (E-R)data model - what is it?
Popular technique for creating a data model whereby developers define the things that will be stored and identify the relationships among them.
What is an entity?
In the E-R data model, a representation of something that users want to track. Some entities represent a physical object; others represent a logical construct or transaction.
What is an attribute?
(1) A variable that provides properties for an HTML tag. Each attribute has a standard name. For example, the attribute for a hyperlink is a href, and its value indicates which Web page is to be displayed when the user clicks the link. (2) Characteristics of an entity. Example attributes of Order would be OrderNumber, OrderDate, SubTotal, Tax, Total, and so forth. Example attributes of a Salesperson would be SalespersonName, Email, Phone, and so forth.
What is a computer network?
Computer network is a collection of computers that communicate with one another over a variety of transmission lines.
What are Three basic types of networks?
LAN, WAN, Internet
What are components of a LAN?
- Components are usually located within a half mile of each other.
- A switch is a special-purpose computer that receives and transmits messages to computers in the LAN.
- A network interface card (NIC)is a hardware component that connects each device’s circuitry to a cable allowing protocols to send data across the LAN.
- Most computers today include an NIC.
- Media access control (MAC) address serves as a unique identifier for each NIC on a LAN.
- Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cables, shown on left, are one way to connect devices to a LAN.
- Optical fiber cables, connect devices to a LAN using fiberglass wires to transmit signals which are light rays.Cladding contain the signals. Optical fiber carries more traffic than UTP cables.
Switch or router - what are they?
- A switch is a special-purpose computer that receives and transmits data across a network.
- A router is a special-purpose computer that moves traffic from one node on a network to another.
Network Interface Card (NIC)
A network interface card (NIC)is a hardware component that connects each device’s circuitry to a cable allowing protocols to send data across the LAN.
What is a MAC address?
Media access control (MAC) address serves as a unique identifier for each NIC on a LAN.
What does NIC stand for?
Network Interface Card
What does MAC (address) stand for?
Media Access Control
What is protocol?
A standardized means for coordinating an activity between two or more entities.
- a.k.a. Ethernet, protocol is used by all LAN devices. It specifies hardware characteristics and describes how messages are packaged and processed.
- The world most popular protocol for LANs is the IEEE 802.3 protocol.
IEEE 802.11 Wireless Protocol
- The technology that enables wireless connections is the IEEE 802.11protocol.
- IEEE 802.11 wireless protocol uses wireless NICs (WNIC) to connect devices to networks similar to how wired NICs operate.
What is a modem?
Short for modulator/demodulator, a modem converts the computer's digital data into signals that can be transmitted over telephone or cable lines.
DSL stands for...?
Digital Subscriber Line
What is DSL?
A communications line that operates on the same lines a voice telephones, but do so in such a manner that their signals to not interfere with voice telephone service.
A type of modem that provides high-speed data transmission using cable television lines. The cable company installs a fast, high-capacity optical fiber cable to a distribution center in each neighborhood that it serves. At the distribution center, the optical fiber cable connects to regular cable-television cables that run to subscribers' homes or businesses. Cable modems modulate in such a way that their signals do not interfere with TV signals. Like DSL lines, they are always on.
(AP) A point in a wireless network that facilitates communication among wireless devices and serves as a point of interconnection between wireless and wired networks.
What are three functions of an ISP?
- Provide users with a legitimate Internet address
- Serve as a gateway for users to connect to the Internet
- Help pay for the Internet by collecting money from customers and using it to pay access fees and other charges
What does PSDN stand for?
Public switched data network
What is a Public switched data network (PSDN)?
another WAN alternative is a public switched data network or a PSDN, a network of computers and leased lines that is developed and maintained by a vendor that leases time on the network to other organizations. A PSDN is a utility that supplies a network for other companies to lease.
What does VPN stand for?
Virtual Private Network
A VPN is...
a WAN connection alternative that uses the Internet or a private internet to create the appearance of private point-to-point connections. In the IT world, the term virtual means something that appears to exist that does not exist in fact. Here, a VPN uses the public internet to create the appearance of a private connection.
What is an Identifier?
An attribute (or group of attributes) whose value is associated with one and only one entity instance.
What Is a Computer Network?
A computer network is a collection of computers that communicate with one another over transmission lines or wireless.
What is HTTPS?
HTTPS is most secure protocol used on the Internet.
What toes SSL stand for?
Secure Socket Layer
What is Secure Socket Layer?
also known as Transport Layer Security (TLS), combines public key/private key with symmetric encryption to establish a secure exchange of data on a Web site.
What is a firewall?
Firewall—a special-purpose computer or a program on a general-purpose computer or router that prevents unauthorized network access.
What are Packet-filtering firewalls?
- Packet-filtering firewalls examine the source address, destination address, and other data in each incoming message and decides whether to let the message enter the network.
- Packet-filtering firewalls prohibit outsiders from starting a session with users behind the firewall, disallow traffic from particular sites, and filter outbound traffic.
What does ACL stand for?
access control list
What is an Access Control List?
A list that encodes the rules stating which packets are to be allowed through a firewall and which are to be prohibited.
Transmission Control Program/Internet Protocol
- Architecture is an arrangement of protocol layers in which each layer is given specific tasks to accomplish.
- OSI architecture is a five-layer blend of OSI andTCP/IP.
The registered, human-friendly valid name in the domain name system (DNS). The process of changing a name into its IP address is called resolving the domain name.
What does DNS stand for?
Domain Name System
What is a Domain Name System?
A system that converts user friendly names into their IP addresses. Any registered, valid name is called a domain name.
Domain Name Resolution
The process of converting a domain name into a public IP address
What is Business Process?
A network of activities, resources, facilities, and information that interact to achieve some business function; sometimes called a business system.
Why Is Business Process Management Important to Organizations?
What is Business Process Management (BPM)?
Systematic process of creating, assessing,altering business processes.
Four stages of BPM
- Create model of business process components
- Create system components
- Implement business process
- Create policy for ongoing assessment of process effectiveness
Functional business processes
- Functional processes involve activities within a single department or function.
- Examples are accounting, human resources, sales forecasting, and other processes that are contained in a single department.
- Cross-functional processes involve activities among several business departments.
- Example: customer relationship management (CRM) is a process that integrates activities of several departments,including sales, marketing, operations, accounting, and customer support.
- Cross-functional processes eliminate, or drastically reduce,problems of isolated systems and data.
- Activities that process credit card transactions and activities at the shipper
- Supply chain management (SCM) processes involve organizational integration.
- In some cases, SCM company will have information systems that directly access
- processes in your own company.
What is the major problem with functional business process?
- Problem with functional processes is their isolation
- Islands of automation, a.k.a, information silos because they work in isolation from one another.
- Independent, isolated processes cannot produce the productivity and efficiency necessary for many businesses.
Just-in-time (JIT) inventory policy
What purpose does Just-in-time (JIT) inventory policy serve?
- Seeks to have production inputs (both raw materials andwork-in-process) delivered to manufacturing site just as theyare needed
- Scheduling delivery of inputs to reduce inventories to aminimum
Two philosophies of manufacturing
- Pull manufacturing process
- Push manufacturing process
Pull manufacturing process
Products are pulled through manufacturing by demand.Produced in response to signals from customers or other production processes. (Demand-side method, JIT)
Push manufacturing process
Analyze past sales levels, make estimates of future sales, create master production schedule. Produce and push into sales (Supply-side method)
Customer Relationship Management
(CRM) is a process that integrates activities of several departments,including sales, marketing, operations, accounting, and customer support.
What is E-commerce?
E-commerce is buying and selling goods and services over public and private computer networks.
Merchant e-commerce VS. Nonmerchant
- Merchant companies take title to the goods they sell.
- Non-merchant companies arrange for purchase and sale of goods without owning or taking title to those goods.
Business models for E-Commerce :B2C, B2B, and B2G
- B2C transactions occur between a supplier and retail customer.The supplier generally uses a Web storefront.
- B2B transactions occur between companies.
- B2G transactions occur between companies and governmental organizations.
How does e-commerce improve market efficiency?
E-Commerce improves market efficiencies in a variety of ways,as this figure shows. Customers benefit from the first two,disintermediation and increased price information. Businesses benefit from increasing their knowledge of price elasticity.
Disintermediation – what does this mean?
Elimination of one or more middle layers in the supply chain
Knowledge of price elasticity – what does this mean?
Price elasticity measures the amount that demand rises or falls with changes in price. E-commerce companies can learn price elasticity directly from experiments on customers.
What economic factors disfavor e-commerce?
- Channel conflict
- Price Conflict
- Logistics expense
- Customer-service expense
channel conflict - definition
Occurs when a manufacturer competes with its traditional retail outlets by selling directly to consumer
Occurs when a manufacturer sells directly to consumers andundercuts retailers’ prices
Occurs when a manufacturer must process thousands of smallquantityorders rather than a few large-quantity orders
Occurs when a manufacturer must begin dealing directly withcustomers rather than relying on retailers’ direct relationships withcustomers
What technologies are needed for e-commerce?
- Three-Tier Architecture
- Almost all e-commerce applications use the three-tier architecture.The tiers refer to three different classes of computers.
- The User Tier consists of computers that have browsers that request and process Web pages.
- The Server Tier consists of computers that run Web servers and process application programs.
- The database tier consists of computers that run a DBMS that processes SQL requests to retrieve and store data.
What does HTML stand for?
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
HTML is the most common language for defining the structure and layout of Web pages. An HTML tag is a notation used to define a data element for display or other purposes.
HTML VS. XML (eXtensible Markeup Language)
HTML is the workhorse for Web pages and e-commerce sites. HTML is particularly effective when one of the parties of the e-commerce is human. If two computer programs want to exchange data, a different markup language called XML is used.
What does XML stand for?
eXtensible Markeup Language
A supply chain is a network of organizations and facilities that transforms raw materials into products delivered to customers.
What factors drive supply chain performance?
Facilities, Inventory,Transportation, and Information
Bullwhip effect occurs when variability in size and timing of orders increases at each stage up chain.
What is Web 2.0?
Specific meaning of Web 2.0 is hard to pin down.
Generally refers to a loose grouping of capabilities,technologies, business models, and philosophies.
Characteristics of Web 2.0
- Value of site increases with users and use
- Organic user interface and mashups
- Participation and ownership differences
- Traditional Web sites are about publishing
- Web 2.0 is about participation
- Traditional Web site lock down all legal rights to content
- Web 2.0 sites lock down only some rights
What is a beta program?
A pre-release version of software, used for testing. The beta program becomes obsolete when the final version is released.
A marketing method used in the Web 2.0 world in which users spread news about products and services to one another.
What is mashup?
The combining of output from two or more websites into a single user experience.
What is the social networking (SN)?
Connections of people with similar interests. Today, social networks typically are supported by Web 2.0 technology.
Two fundamental social networking services:
N:M communication and social collaboration
What is a microblog?
A web site on which users can publish their opinions, just like a Web blog, but the opinions are restricted to small amounts of text. Twitter is a microblogging tool
What is a user-generated content (UGC)?
- Ratings and surveys
- Customer stories
- Discussion groups
- Crowdsourcing specialty (Spore-create creator)
What is Crowd-sourcing?
The process by which organizations involve their customers in the design and marketing of products.