Norman Part three 3-31-13

  1. Elevators are generally built with at least? Fire rating  and they don’t generally account for serious extension hazards, although they may transmit smoke and heat rapidly. 377
    2-hour fire resistance ratings
  2. Whenever you are searching for a fire or taking a line above the fire and you are working in very heavy smoke conditions try to? 378
    Find the wall directly behind the toilet and open it up. The toilet requires a large diameter pipe, so it is usually in this wall that the biggest pipe chase is located.
  3. Generally, steel framing is used in? 379
    Class 3 buildings (ordinary or nonfireproof construction) that are more than 25 feet wide.
  4. Operations at multiple dwellings where so many people may be trapped should focus on removing those in greatest danger first while protecting the greatest number in place. This usually means getting the first hoseline in place to protect the? 379
    Interior stairway, regardless of whether or not people are showing at the window.
  5. The only deviation from this plan (Operations at multiple dwellings where many people are trapped focusing on those in greatest danger while protecting the greatest number in place) should be? 379
    Where victims are being directly threatened by fire and a hoseline is needed to keep the fire away from them, or where a ladder must be raised to remove them immediately and no other personnel are available, including civilians to help raise the ladder. The person who is screaming and waving for help can at least scream and wave. The people who are already overcome cannot.
  6. Forcible entry techniques used at multiple-dwelling fires is a made to order situation for what type of tool  380
    Hydraulic forcible entry tools (HFTs)
  7. When going above a fire to search, be sure to force entry? 381
    First into an apartment other than the one directly over the fire. If you then force the apartment directly over the fire and find that it is already full of extending fire, you have an escape route, even if the stairs were also to become blocked.
  8. While multiple intermediate-size handlines are sufficient for fire that are confined to a single apartment or even those that have extended through to the floor above, if heavy fire is showing in two or more apartments on one floor ? 381
    It is time to bring out the 2 ½ in. hose.
  9. Apart from holding the hoseline in the lobby until someone climbs all the way up to the fire floor to verify the proper stairway, (which may have to be done at large-area complexes), the fastest method of selecting stairways is to, ? 382
    Have a member climb to the second floor and locate the proper apartment line.
  10. If the fire is reported in apartment 5B, and if the member at the second floor finds apartment 2B just off the staircase, the member should at least check one more door to find a 2A or 2C, then call down to have the line stretched. That way, if the B line of apartments is not found in that area it is quick enough to drop down to the lobby and check the other stairways. This type of stairway layout is called? 382
    An isolated staircase, since the members will be isolated from the fire area if they choose the improper stair.
  11. Wing stairs may be found in larger building. They are in effect? 383
    Single stairs that serve only that wing.
  12. What stairs create all the problems of wing stairs or single stairs? 383
  13. What type of stairs is very helpful to fire operations, allowing several approaches (and exits) to the fire area? Multiple hoselines can be stretched without interfering with each other, but care must be taken to avoid opposing hose streams. 384
  14. Where the staircase maintains a constant location on each floor ( called ?), it is a simple task to count the number of doors on the floor below from the stairway to the proper apartment, then go back up and follow the same steps. 384
    Return stairs
  15. What stairs have half landings between floors and the stairs "return" to the same location on each floor? This allows firefighters to maintain their bearings in heavy smoke. 384
    Return stairs
  16. The? Is usually the place where you want to make a defensive stand if severe fire conditions prevent your advance down the hall toward the fire area? 387
  17. (Roof Operations) Being the high point of the chimney, the stairway that leads to the bulkhead? This means that? Members must proceed immediately to the roof at all multiple dwelling fires, for? 388
    • Two Rescue
    • Ventilation, even for lower floor fires
  18. When breaking glass in skylights, remember that? 389
    Firefighters are likely moving up the stairs. Break a small pane first, pause a few moments as a warning to those below, then continue to clear the entire skylight, trying to pull as much back onto the roof as possible.
  19. A? secured to the top section of the aerial ladder or elevating platform boom allows quick access to skylights located on top of high bulkheads. 389
    Folding attic ladder
  20. The benefit gained by sending members to the roof? A word of caution on using fire escapes- 389
    Most fire escapes don’t go to the roof, only to the top floor. (Fire escapes in the rear of the building usually go to the roof via a narrow, vertical ladder called a gooseneck ladder, which is difficult to climb while laden with equipment).
  21. Many times, the buildings were built in rows, abutting each other. If this is the case, the adjoining building should be the? 389
    First choice for reaching the roof, even over the aerial device, since it is usually much faster and safer unless it is a row of wood frame buildings that share a common cockloft
  22. Sometimes, the roof team can make a rapid descent down the rear fire escape, which can put the members in a position to? 390
    Reach trapped victims much sooner than any other method.
  23. Some of the most dangerous multiple dwellings to operate in are those that? 391
    Have been renovated
  24. What are the 2 factors have changed the way firefighters must look at multiple dwellings? 391
    • The number of vacant structures of all types is growing.
    • The increased use of lightweight or truss construction
  25. Fire Proof Multiple Dwellings? Even recognizing the building as a Class 1 fireproof building may not be so simple. Look for fire escapes and cockloft vents; if they are present the building is likely? 392
    Class 3
  26. What type of stairs, compound operational problems, especially for the engine company trying to operate off a standpipe? They will usually need more hose to reach the fire. 393
  27. The most punishing affairs likely to occur in these buildings (fireproof multiple dwellings), involve fire that is vented to the outside with the apartment door open and a? 394
    Stiff wind blowing into the fire apartment in this case, the conditions in the hall will approximate the inside of a blast furnace.
  28. Multiple dwellings of all types present firefighters with? 402
    Their greatest life hazard. As such, a tremendous effort is expended in fighting these fires.
  29. What is a term used to describe a row of stores and other occupancies, such as a local pizza parlor or Chinese food place, housed under a single roof? Although not recognized by any building code, this description has come to be accepted by the fire service as any multi-store commercial structure described previously that is built of? 416
    Taxpayer? Class 3 ordinary construction
  30. The roof construction on the typical taxpayer is one of four styles: 417
    • Standard flat roof
    • Inverted roof
    • Metal deck on bar joists
    • Bowstring truss.
  31. Newer style taxpayers are often noncombustible buildings, since there is very little to burn in their basic materials. These fall into the category of? 418
    Class 2 construction.
  32. Once the building is fully occupied, though, the major part of the fire load comes from? 418
    The materials stored within, and the larger open floor area can make for a spectacular fire on arrival.
  33. Firefighters think of steel as being noncombustible, but they fail to realize that it is a? 418
    Thermoplastic metal that changes shape fairly easy when it encounters the heat of a structure fire.
  34. This is especially true of relatively thin pieces of steel that make up the typical bar joist and corrugated metal decks. When exposed to fire, these style roofs can fail in as little as? 418
    5 minutes
  35. Wood trusses snap suddenly and drop the roof onto or out from under firefighters. In addition, steel-bar joists are generally spaced relatively close together, from 2 to 6 ft apart, in contrast to wooden bowstring trusses, which are typically 20 ft apart. Bar joists come in lengths of up to 60 ft and from the roof you cannot tell which direction they run- front rear, side to side. The failure of two or three bar joists will cause an area? As opposed to the instantaneous gap, created by the failure of a single bowstring truss 419
    • 10 or 15 ft wide by 60 ft long to fail
    • 40 ft wide by 100 (or more) ft long?
  36. A type of construction being used in the newest taxpayers involves? 420
    Lightweight wood trusses as the roof and/ or floor supports.
  37. Commercial buildings differ from residential buildings in several ways that affect the crews of first-alarm engine and ladder companies. Generally, stores consist of larger, undivided areas as compared to residences. The dimensions of a typical store in a taxpayer is ? 420
    20 ft wide and 75-100 ft deep, with a ceiling height of 10-15 ft.
  38. Gaining Entry into Rear doors are often secured with fox locks or drop-in bars. These will be evident by the ? 422
    Bolt heads penetrating the door.
  39. The ? of many taxpayers is often the easiest area to enter. Often, the door and show windows are of plate glass. For rapidly extending fire, or where fire has already broken the display windows, simple smash the glass door. 423
  40. Backdraft conditions are more readily achieved in occupancies that are protected with steel gates, since a security gate can ? 423
    Hide a fire in its incipient stage.
  41. Often since this area (the cellar) is only used for storage, there is only one cellar stairway., usually found ? 424
    In the rear of the store.
  42. Since ventilation in cellars, will be almost nil initially, using a fog stream should be ? 424
    Avoided at all cost, lest it pressurize an area ahead and drive the fire back toward the stairway around the sides of the pattern.
  43. When preparing to enter a cellar, make sure you have at least ? 424
    Twice the depth of the store plus one length when you stretch the hose, or else you may run short. Always charge the line before going a cellar stairway.
  44. You should begin to cut large ventilation holes, ? , as soon as a serious cellar fire is discovered. 424
    4X4 minimum
  45. Concrete, terrazzo, and tile floors each weigh about ? 426
    150 pounds per cu ft.
  46. A 4 in.-thick slab of concrete resting on wood joists adds nearly ? to the load that the beams are carrying. 426
    50 lb per sq ft
  47. One particular occupancy where large concentrations of concrete will always be found is in ? 427
    Self-service laundries.
  48. If conditions indicate the existence of a serious fire below a masonry floor supported by either wood or unprotected steel, all personnel must be ? 427
    Removed from the area directly over the fire until the fire has been knocked down and the structural integrity of the floor has been determined.
  49. If the size-up of the building indicates that the structure is of fire-resistive construction (typically required for buildings over 75 feet high) then the masonry floor ? 428
    Is likely to be reinforced concrete and therefore safe for operations.
  50. If there is any indication that heavy fire is attacking wood or unprotected steel joists supporting a masonry floor ? 428
    Employ defensive tactics.
  51. A heavy body of fire in a store can easily require ? gpm 429
    800-900 gpm to darken it down. By placing the basket of the platform down at the sidewalk, directly in front of the show window, you put in place the most highly mobile 1,000 gpm-plus master stream available.
  52. Fires that begin in or extend into the cockloft are probably the major causes ? 430
    Of total loss of taxpayer buildings
  53. Remember, a 100 ft steel beam heated to 1000 degrees will expand ? 433
    9 ½ in. lengthwise.
  54. The warning to firefighters should be clear; however, when a serious fire involves the cockloft of a taxpayer or is blowing out display windows, the entire sidewalk on all frontages should be considered within ? 433
    The collapse zone
  55. If an elevated platform has been operating for a great length of time into a cockloft but not making any headway against an advanced fire, then it too must be ? 434
    Pulled out of the collapse zone.
  56. Roof operations demand, how many personnel, if you hope to cut the required vent holes in time. 434
    At least six members with two saws, four hooks, two axes, and two Halligan tools immediately,
  57. The ? are the weak link in the chain of fire safety. 437
  58. A minimum of ? firefighters per floor in a highrise for small area fires, more for larger areas or heavily charged rooms 438
  59. Shut down ? systems in high-rises and place them is a non-recirculating mode (all dampers open to the outside air) 438
  60. In broad terms, High-rise designs fall into two eras: ? 440
    Pre-World War II, and those built afterword.
  61. The major disadvantages of the newer style of high-rises include ? 447
    The use of lightweight building materials including, among other things, spray-on fireproofing in place of poured concrete, (the WTC?s floors consisted of lightweight concrete on metal decking supported by steel bar joists)
  62. The best method would be to have ? within the HVAC system that would shut down the system in the event of trouble. 449
    Smoke detectors
  63. Prior to selecting a ventilation strategy, the fire officer must recall that the following two factors outweigh all others in high-rise ventilation: ? 450
    Wind and the stack effect
  64. What is the natural movement of air within a building 450
    Stack effect
  65. Stack effect becomes noticeable in buildings more than ? and becomes stronger as the building gets taller. It occurs in these buildings 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. 451
    60 ft high
  66. Stack effect is caused by ? 451
    By warm air rising up through stairways, elevator shafts, utility chases, and all other vertical shafts.
  67. Inverse or reverse stack effect can occur in air conditioned high-rise buildings in ? 453
    Hot weather
  68. A serious fire in a high-rise requires a major ? commitment to clear the building’s lobby and surrounding streets and sidewalks. 455
    Police commitment
  69. In regards to highrise, set up fire line tape at least? 455
    One block away in all directions
  70. The IC should carefully consider the consequences before issuing an order to vent the windows in a highrise. A slogan to keep in mind is ? 455
    High-high or low-low is a no-no. In other words if the fire occurs on the upper floor on a day when the temperature outside is high, or on a lower floor when the temperature outside is low, then venting windows is a no-no since smoke will likely go into the building.
  71. Using Elevators, Gaining access to the fire is the ? biggest problem in a high-rise. 456
  72. In buildings higher than ? stories, using the elevators becomes an absolute necessity if you are going to get anything out of your firefighters. 456
  73. It is also a requirement if you want to keep your reflex time to anything under ? minutes. Reflex time is the total time elapsed from the receipt of the alarm until an effective stream is flowing on the fire. It includes response and set-up time. 456
  74. In addition there are fatigue and logistical problems of mounting an attack 20 or more stories above the ground if you don’t use the elevators. Fortunately, at just about the practical limit of ascent by stairway, the following two building features come into play that work to our advantage: ? 457
    The sky lobby (an elevator terminal for separate banks of elevators) and blind-shaft elevators.
  75. What is the practice of grouping all of the nonrentable spaces-stairs, elevators, lobbies, electrical, airshafts, and the like? In a central core, thus leaving the more desirable perimeter as open floor space. 462
    Core construction
  76. The ? is a diamond-tipped drill used in high-rise construction to bore holes up to ? diameter through floors 463
    Concrete core cutter, 8 in.
  77. The primary danger from using exterior streams on a highrise is that they will ? 464
    drive the fire toward interior forces.
  78. Another common problem with core construction is the presence of ? 464
    Scissor stairs, which alternately exit the core on opposite sides
  79. An additional type of stairway commonly found in high-rise office buildings is called ? 464
    Access stair.
  80. An operations officer, usually one of the first-arriving chiefs other than the IC, should be sent to the ? to assume command over operations on the fire floor and the floor above. 468
    Floor below the fire
  81. The operation post on a highrise, must then be assigned at least ? 469
    Two members, usually a chief and an aide, to handle communications
  82. Maintaining the resources needed to keep the attack moving forward is the duty of another sector commander, the ? 470
    Staging area officer. A forward staging area should be set up approximately three floors below the fire to maintain the needed supplies and personnel on standby to feed up to the operations officer.
  83. At times, on a highrise, rather than have members who will soon become attack personnel carry this extra equipment, it is better to assign additional members to the task. Generally one member is assigned for every ? 470
    Two floors above grade to the fire.
  84. As a rule of thumb, the staging area on a highrise, should maintain a reserve force of at least ?
    Two attack teams and two support teams of three members each, equipped for forcible entry and overhaul. 470
  85. You should also establish a third major sector at serious high-rise fires. Dubbed the ? post, it should be established in a reasonably safe area above the fire. 470
    Search and evacuation (SAE)
  86. SAE, Also staffed by ? members, similar to the operations post, its duties are to direct and control the activities of all fire forces operating above the fire floor and the floor immediately above. 470
  87. SAE, They should consider bringing a spare SCBA cylinder with them when setting up. An excellent choice of a floor for the location of the SAE is a ? 471
    Sky-lobby or other floor not served by an elevator that also serves the fire floor, thus allowing passage past the fire floor by elevator with reasonable security.
  88. Often there are no ? until quite late in the construction. The floors often have large penetrations and unprotected vertical openings, such as elevator shafts, to permit access and passage of construction material. Extremely rapid vertical spread of fire is likely. 475
    Fire walls
  89. First arriving units at a fire in a building under construction should make it a habit to ? 479
    Test the first floor outlet for water before proceeding upward.
  90. The 4 category in order of resistance to collapse is ? 542
    Class 5, wood frame buildings.
  91. This leaves ? , as the least resistance to collapse when exposed to fire. 542
    Class 2 construction, metal or noncombustible
  92. Collapse Rescue Operations, in the event that firefighters are trapped or disabled in the vicinity of the fire, one of the first actions to take is to ? 559
    Bring as many streams to bear in that area as possible.
  93. Collapse Rescue Plan, what are the 5 stages of the collapse rescue plan are as follows? 561
    • Reconnaissance
    • Accounting for and removal of the surface victims
    • Searching voids
    • Selected debris removal and tunneling
    • General debris removal
  94. Targeting of rescuers is the threat of ? 578
    Weapons of mass destruction (WMD), which are chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive (CBRNE) weapons by terrorists.
  95. One of the most important tasks that can be undertaken at a bombing, giving the nature of the new terrorism is to ? 583
    Disperse the crowds of onlookers, as well as avoid concentrations of responders that might be a target of a secondary device or a suicide attacker.
  96. Check for hazards as you approach a bombing. Special units such as a ? 587
    Hazmat teams must realize that they are the only ones capable of detecting many chemical and radiological agents during the initial stages. This identification is critical to the safety of all responders.
  97. Early establishment and clear identification of the CP at a bombing is ? 589
    Vital to organizing the proper coordination of outside resources
  98. Proceed as though every explosion were the result of a ? 592
    Bombing until other causes are determined.
  99. Until such a time that an area, (from a bombing) has been designated as being safe from secondary devices avoid ? 593
    Touching, moving, or striking suspicious items that may be in the area in which you are operating.
  100. Explosions are very hazardous incidents, regardless of their cause. Until the incident scene has been investigated by trained personnel equipped with the proper devices to detect the potential hazards that may be present, all members should ? 594
    Take all necessary precautions to protect themselves, their fellow firefighters, and the public from possible escalation of the incident.
  101. In the event of a bomb blast containing radioactive material, the main threat is ? 594
    Physical damage (trauma and burns) caused by the explosive, not the radioactivity.
  102. Radiological Incidents, Establish a perimeter of the cold zone at ? 596
    1.0 m/R (milliroentgen, or 1/1000 roentgen) line. This is a very low level, but it is well above most normal or background levels, so it indicates the presence of an additional source.
  103. The main hazard from radio-active material is from ? 597
    Inhaling or ingesting (swallowing) it, where the alpha or beta particles can become trapped in the body.
  104. What is the most likely WMD we might face? 597
    • A military agent such as sarin
    • intentional release of chlorine or hydrogen cyanide
  105. A well-planned terrorist attack would not be that obvious initially. Probably, it would look like ? 599
    The typical unknown odor incident
  106. What type of patients, are those persons exhibiting no signs or symptoms of exposure, but who are requesting treatment simply because of fear. 600
    Walking well
  107. First-Alarm Tactical Operations for a terrorist attack, The best protection is to ? 602
    Avoid contact with suspected agents. If possible, stay out of any spills, clouds, or areas where fumes are located.
  108. Tests performed by the U.S. Army have shown that full bunker gear and SCBA should ? 603
    Protect a rescuer for a limited time, to rescue victim that are still alive.
  109. The SBCCOM tests show that bunker gear will protect the wearer for a maximum of only ? 604
    3 minutes in a lethal concentration
  110. Once the initial size-up of a terrorist attack is completed ? 604
    The survey team should withdraw to a safe area.
  111. Before the initial survey team enters any potentially contaminated area from a possible terrorist attack, a ? 604
    Back-up team and decon team must be in place.
  112. The bunker gear reported by SBCCOM provides estimations of residual vapor hazard potentially faced by first responders, ? 606
    30 minutes after chemical release.
  113. The strategy that guides a defensive operation for a chemical release in a large venue can be difficult to accept at first glance, but it is grounded in solid military tactics. In the military, the concept is known as ? 607
    Force protection.
  114. Initial rescue actions should concentrate on ? 608
    Removing able-bodied persons from immediate danger. When the probability is high that a victim cannot be saved or is dead already, rescue should not be attempted.
Card Set
Norman Part three 3-31-13
Norman Notes