World Lit Final

  1. “Diary of a Madman”- Author
    Lu Xun
  2. Lu Xun
    • Born into a family of Confucian scholar-officials
    • used his knowledge of classical Chinese language and literature with irony
    • Grew up when the traditional Chinese education, based on the Confucian classics, was giving way to a more modern education

    After his father’s death, he studied (modern) medicine in Japan where he saw a classroom slide of a Chinese prisoner about to be decapitated as a Russian spy. Shocked by the apathetic crowd of Chinese onlookers he decided to heal their dull spirits rather than their bodies.
  3. Lu Xun  works
    • bleak and powerful portrayals of a culture
    • Collections of 25 short stories
    • Literary and political essays
  4. “Diary of a Madman"
    • • Lu Xun’s earliest story in modern Chinese. • It opens with a preface in mannered classical Chinese, giving an account of the discovery of the diary.
    • • The language of the diary is immediate and direct (but also deluded and twisted). • Use of an unreliable narrator
    • • Modernist characteristics
  5. Confucianism and “Diary of a Madman”
    • • A Confucian culture believes that customs and ceremonies create morality, which in turn will create an ordered, hierarchical society in which the most virtuous rule the least virtuous.
    • • Each person fills a role in a unified body.
    • • The fear of cannibalism that the madman feels is the fear of losing his individuality and becoming “eaten” or assimilated for the greater good.
    • • Lu Xun satirizes the Confucian veneration of age and tradition by asserting that the young must be sacrificed to the old, the individual to the collective.
  6. “Diary of a Madman” (publication notes)
    • • “Diary of a Madman” was published in New Youth, a New Culture movement magazine, as political allegory or fictional manifesto to critique China’s feudalistic, Confucian culture.
    • • It shows the risk of not rebelling against China’s outdated values.
    • • The author supported the New Culture movement, which questioned Confucian culture and instead believed in a future oriented Chinese nationalism, the end of filial or social patriarchy, women’s liberation, and egalitarianism.
  7. Samuel Beckett
    • • His work is at the juncture between modernist and postmodernist work.
    • • When Germany invaded France in 1940, Beckett joined the French resistance, typing and translating information concerning German troop movements.
    • • After the Gestapo discovered the Resistance cell of the British SOE (Special Operations Executive) that Beckett had joined, he spent the rest of the war in hiding in Roussillon, a small village in France.
    • • The period immediately after World War II was, for Beckett, a time of enormous creativity.
    • • He received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1969; his work had garnered an international reputation by the 1970s.
  8. A member of the novelist James Joyce’s literary circle in Paris during the late 1920 and early 1930s.
    Samuel Beckett (1906-1989)
  9. Waiting for Godot
    • 1953
    • • En Attendant Godot (Waiting for Godot) was written between October 1948 and January 1949.
    • • The original French play was published in 1952, and premiered in 1953.
    • • The English translation was published in 1954.
  10. Waiting for Gadot was a new conception of drama
    • • A mixture of vaudeville routines and metaphysical speculation.
    • • Two tramps wait on a country road for a figure (referred to as Godot) who never arrives. • Minimalistic: “less is more”
    • • Critics struggled to come to terms with its reduced but undeniably powerful dramatic vision.
    • • It has received theatrical productions all over the world.
    • • It reflects the intellectual and artistic climate of a Europe still recovering from the devastation of World War II.
  11. “The Theatre of the Absurd”
    • • Major avant-garde theatre genre of the 1950s and 1960s.
    • • In the aftermath of WW II’s unprecedented horrors, a number of Continental dramatists rejected dramatic coherence and logic and the centuries-old tradition of rationality on which they stood. • In 1961, the critic Martin Esslin conceptualized a strand of these avant-garde theatrical works as “The Theatre of the Absurd.”
    • • This genre describes the drama of Beckett, Ionesco, Genet, and others.
  12. This genre is philosophically akin to the writings of Albert Camus, Jean-Paul Sartre, and other existentialist philosophers who were writing about human existence in a world that seems to present no meaning.
    The Theatre of the Absurd
  13. “A world that can be explained by reasoning, however faulty, is a familiar world. But in a universe that is suddenly deprived of illusions and of light, man feels a stranger. His is an irremediable exile, because he is deprived of memories of a lost homeland as much as he lacks the hope of a promised land to come. This divorce between man and his life, the actor and his setting, truly constitutes the feeling of Absurdity.”
    Myth of Sisyphus (1942), Albert Camus
  14. Waiting for Gadot setting
    • • Beckett dismantles the elements, or meaning structures, that have sustained and defined dramatic literature.
    • • Instead of a conventional plot, the play is organized around activities—pacing, speaking, remembering, falling down—that refuse to cohere into a beginning, middle, and end.
    • • Instead of presenting dramatic action, the play dramatizes the condition of waiting.
    • • The amount of time that elapses between acts 1 and 2 remains mysterious:
    • • The play’s minimalist setting—“A country road. A tree”—is indeterminate.
  15. Waiting For Godot meaning
    • • There is an indication that there were more idyllic times and places, compared to now.
    • • Waiting for a figure (or something, or some event) whose arrival might give meaning to their lives, the two ponder their condition while devising strategies to pass the time.
    • • The play’s original French title--En attendant Godot—translates into English more accurately as “While waiting for Godot,” a phrase that shifts attention from the act of waiting to what one does to kill time during that time of waiting.
    • • Gogo (Estragon) and Didi (Vladimir) develop routines—putting on boots, engaging in crosswalk “canters,” even (they fantasize) hanging themselves—that provide distractions from the tedium of waiting.
    • • Much of the crosstalk and many of the routines that these tramps devise recall vaudeville and music hall entertainment, clown performances, and the silent films of Charlie Chaplin.
  16. A disjointed monologue consisting of quasi-philosophical and quasi-theoretical discourse, arcane and invented references, and sexual and scatological wordplay.
    • Lucky’s monologue
    • • A mock-academic portrayal of an (Western) intellectual tradition whose religious and rational frameworks have imploded.
    • • Loss of faith in the Western Intellectual tradition as the single dominant discourse.
  17. “A play in which nothing happens, twice” But the second act is not an exact repetition.
    Vivian Mercier
  18. The German drinking song
    • about a dog 
    • • Mirrors the play’s structure.
    • • Repeats endlessly.
  19. Is Waiting for Gadot a Play about the Christian God?
    • • The Age of Faith had passed and the idea of God no longer served as the foundation of moral order?
    • • Beckett: If I knew who Godot was, I would have said so in the play.
  20. Waiting for Gadot themes
    • • Despair
    • • Boredom
    • • Anguish
    • • Hope 
    • • Resiliency
    • • Time
  21. Victoria Nalani Kneubuhl
    The Conversion of Ka’ahumanu
  22. Victoria Nalani Kneubuhl
    • • Born in Honolulu in 1949.
    • • A playwright of Hawaiian, Samoan, and Caucasian descent. 
    • • Focused on Hawaiian studies, art, and psychology at Antioch College.
    • • Started pursuing an MA in psychology at the University of Hawaii.
    • • After taking a playwriting class, she got an MA in theatre arts instead.
    • • Her plays, exhibits, and films concern issues of Hawaiian and Samoan cultural identity—particularly those of women and cross-cultural contact. 
    • • Characters of mixed descent are often crucial in her works (e.g., hapa haole).
    • • Received the Hawaii Award for Literature in 1995 (Hawaii’s highest award for literary achievement).
  23. Play which dramatizes Hawaiians and Americans’ cross-cultural contact during the early nineteenth century, when American missionary work in Hawaii was beginning.
    • The Conversion of Ka’ahumanu (1988)*
    • • This work shows the complexity and humanity of the five very different women (Native and American) whose lives are irrevocably changed by the expansion of Protestant missionary efforts in the Pacific.
  24. History of Hawaii
    • • Polynesians first arrived on Hawaiian Islands about 1500 years ago.
    • • In 1778, British explorer Captain James Cook found the Hawaiian islands while looking for a passage around the Americas. He opened the doors to the West.
    • • In 1810, Kamehameha unified the warring factions of the Hawaiian islands into one kingdom.
    • • King Kamehameha passed away in 1819; the King’s favorite wife Ka’ahumanu became the co-ruler and guardian to the King’s young heir, Liholiho. She abolished the ancient kapu system.
    • • In 1820, the first American Protestant missionaries arrived in Hawaii. By that point, Hawaii was full of foreign traders and whalers.
    • • Western disease led to the great decline of the Native Hawaiian population.
    • • American settlers and traders controlled most of Hawaii’s economy, formed the all-white “Republic of Hawaii,” and overthrew the Hawaiian Kingdom, which is still controversial.
    • • Hawaii became a U.S. territory in 1898, and the 50th U.S. statein 1959.
  25. Queen Ka’ahumanu (1777-1832)
    • She was baptized in 1825, taking the name, Elizabeth
  26. “Contact Zones”
    • Mary Louise Pratt’s term from her article, “Arts of the Contact Zone,” published in Profession 91. New York: MLA, 1991. 33-40  • “Social spaces where cultures meet, clash, and grapple with each other, often in contexts of highly asymmetrical relations of power [, such as colonialism, slavery, or their aftermaths as they are lived out in many parts of the world today]”
  27. “White Man’s Burden” (1899)
    • Rudyard Kipling
    • Take up the White Man's burden— Send forth the best ye breed— Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild— Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child Take up the White Man's burden— In patience to abide, To veil the threat of terror And check the show of pride; By open speech and simple, An hundred times made plain To seek another's profit, And work another's gain…
  28. Conversion of Ka'ahmanu themes
    • • Conversion(s)
    • • Feminist perspective
    • • Motifs of disease and sickness
    • • Intercultural vs. (post)colonial relationships
    • • Complex treatment of religion
  29. Intercultural
    • Because of the prefix “inter-,” an “Intercutural” relationship tends to connote a relationship that entails mutuality, equality, and reciprocity between two different cultural groups.
  30. Postcolonial
    • • When a work of art is “postcolonial,” it means the work shows the perspective of the colonized or formerly colonized people, or shows their agency (self-determining, self-identifying qualities).
    • • Postcolonial literature usually refers to works of literature written by writers from the formerly colonized culture and produced after a colonial period, but it can also be extended to works of colonial literature if they show colonized people’s agency or resistance to colonialism.
  31. Intercultural and/or postcolonial aspects of Kneubuhl’s play and Trask’s writing
    • • The reality of the relation between Native Hawaii and the U.S. is an asymmetrical power relation.
    • • Kneubuhl’s play dramatizes what Mary Louise Pratt might call a “contact zone”; in some aspects, it dramatizes symmetrical interactions and exchanges between Hawaiians and Americans (hence, intercultural), but in other aspects, it showsasymmetrical power relations between Hawaii and America and reveals Hawaiians’ agency (hence, postcolonial).
    • • Trask’s writing, on the other hand, highlights the asymmetrical power relations between Native Hawaii and the United States of America (hence, postcolonial), even to the point of romanticizing and idealizing all of Native Hawaiian tradition. However, this can be an activist strategy to draw attention to Native issues which are severely obscured in America.
  32. Yi Munyol
    Our Twisted Hero
  33. • Born in Seoul, South Korea.
    • Lived under political surveillance when he was young, because his father defected to North Korea.
    • Studied Korean Literature and joined a college literary association while attending Seoul National University.
    • Novelist and short-story writer.
    • Taught Korean literature at universities.
    • Received numerous prestigious literary awards in Korea.
    • A visiting professor of Korean literature at Harvard.
    • Some of his works portray social injustice, using allegory.
    Yi Munyol
  34. Our Twisted Hero
    • • First published in 1987.
    • • Translated into English by Kevin O'Rourke, which was published in 2001 by Hyperion East. • Part of emerging world literature in translation.
  35. Joy Harjo
    • • Born in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to a mother of mixed Cherokee, French, and Irish blood, and to a father, a member of the Creek(or Muskogee) tribe.
    • • She describes her father’s family as “rebels and speakers”; her grandfather led a Creek rebellion against their forced removal from Alabama into Oklahoma in 1832.
    • • Drawing on a family tradition of powerful speaking, Harjo participates in a search to reimagine and repair painful fractures in contemporary experience: (between past and present, between person and landscape, and between parts of the self).
    • • A leading figure in the adaptation of oral traditions into written forms, trying to make her poems duplicate certain oral and ceremonial techniques.
  36. Harjo's works
    • • Traveling is a mythic activity in her poems, enacting the search for community and historical connectedness.
    • • The theme of traveling in her poems resonates with the historical displacements and migrations of native peoples (especially the forced removal of the Creeks).
    • • (She has called herself the wanderer, and her poems often map her journeys, whether on foot, by car, or in a plane.)
    • • Her vision of the interrelatedness of all things is common to Native American storytelling.
    • • This vision stresses reciprocity between people and various sources of power, including tradition and the natural world.
  37. • Her poems bring together mythic, feminist, and cultural perspectives and also unite contemporary urban experience with Native American myth and legends. 
    • Reflecting the understanding that Native American tradition evolves and changes, Harjo has adapted new musical and poetic forms to Native American traditions. 
    • Her poems bring together mythic, feminist, and cultural perspectives and also unite contemporary urban experience with Native American myth and legends. 
    • Reflecting the understanding that Native American tradition evolves and changes, Harjo has adapted new musical and poetic forms to Native American traditions.
    Influences of Joy Harjo's poetry
  38. Things Fall Apart
    • Chinua Achebe
    • exploded the colonialist image of Africans as childlike people living in a primitive society
    • a conscious attempt to counteract the distortions of Joyce Cary’s Mister Johnson by describing the richness and complexity of traditional African society before the colonial invasion. • Achebe: it was important to “teach my readers that their past—with all its imperfections—was not one long night of savagery from which the first Europeans acting on God’s behalf delivered them.”
  39. “The Second Coming”
    Turning and turning in the widening gyre The falcon cannot hear the falconer; Things fall apart; the center cannot hold; Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world…

    W. B. Yeats
  40. Chinua Achebe (1930-2013)
    • • Born in the town of Ogidi, an Igbo-speaking town of Eastern Nigeria, on November 16, 1930.
    • • His father was a teacher for the Church Missionary Society.
    • • Achebe’s parents christened him Albert after Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria.
    • • When he entered the university, he went with his indigenous name Chinua, which abbreviates Chinualumogu, or “My spirit come fight for me.”
    • • Achebe’s novels offer a picture of Igbo society with its fierce egalitarianism [true ?] and “town meeting” debates. • Two cultures co-existed in Ogidi: African social customs and traditional religion, and British colonial authority and Christianity.
    • • Achebe was curious about both ways of life and fascinated with the dual perspective that came from living “at the crossroads of cultures
  41. Chinua Achebe (1930-2013) history
    • • Attended church schools (receiving education in English), and read books in his father’s library.
    • • His mother and sister told him traditional Igbo stories.
    • • Attended University College, Ibadan, initially to study medicine.
    • • Changed to a program in liberal arts that combined English, history, and religious studies.
    • • Realized the distorted image of African culture offered by British colonial literature. • Was shocked to find Nigerians described as violent savageswith passionate instincts and simple minds in Joyce Cary’s Mister Johnson (1939).
    • • Things Fall Apart was a conscious attempt to counteract the distortions of Joyce Cary’s Mister Johnson by describing the richness and complexity of traditional African society before the colonial invasion.
    • • Achebe: it was important to “teach my readers that their past—with all its imperfections—was not one long night of savagery from which the first Europeans acting on God’s behalf delivered them.”
  42. Chinua Achebe (1930-2013) and His Works
    • • The best-known African writer today, whose first novel, Things Fall Apart, exploded the colonialist image of Africans as childlike people living in a primitive society. • A major writer who has given an entirely new direction to the English-language novel; he gave rise to the African (postcolonial) novel in English (hence, his reputation as the “father of the African novel in English”). • He created a complex narrative point of view that questions cultural images—including its own—with a subtle irony and compassion born from bicultural experience. • Achebe writes, as he says, “from the inside.”
    • • For him, literature is important because it liberates human imagination; it “begins as an adventure in self-discovery and ends in wisdom and human conscience.”
    • • His novels examine the individual and cultural dilemmas of Nigerian society.
  43. “African English”
    • • Achebe’s language in his novels
    • • Achebe's literary language is an English blended with Igbo vocabulary, proverbs, images, and speech patterns to create anew voice embodying the linguistic pluralism of modern African experience (including standard English, Igbo, and pidgin)
    • • Achebe demonstrated the existence of a diverse society that is otherwise concealed behind language barriers—a culture, he suggests, that escaped colonial officials who wrote about African character without ever understanding the language.
    • • Acknowledges that his primary African audience is younger schooled readers who are relatively fluent in English.
  44. Mahasweta Devi
    • • The leading contemporary writer in Bengali (the language of the state of West Bengal, and of Bangladesh).
    • • (The “Devi” in her name is a term of respect attached to a woman’s name in Bengali)
    • • Writes about peasants, outcastes, women, tribal peoples, and other marginalized groups struggling to survive and resisting their exploitation by dominant groups.
  45. “Breast-Giver (Stanadayini)” Importance
    • • Published in 1980.
    • • Focuses on the dynamics of oppression.
    • • Forced to become the wage earner of the household, Kangalicharan’s wife, Jashoda, becomes a wet-nurse for the Haldar family, who retain her services until she becomes useless to them.
    • • The short story exposes the collusion of patriarchal and capitalist ideologies in the exploitation of the disadvantaged.
  46. “Breast-Giver (Stanadayini)” Themes
    • • Themselves victims, the women of the Haldar household are Jashoda’s chief exploiters.
    • • Jashoda is tied to the expectations of wifehood and motherhood, and ultimately the self-destructive task of being “mother of the world.”
    • • Nevertheless, the short story doesn’t fully robs Jashoda and Kangalicharan of their sense of agency and power.
    • • Focuses on the centrality of the female body.
    • • Gender and class oppression intersect in the story.
    • • Mythic and satirical inflections: Jashoda (named for Yashoda, the mother of the cowherd-child-god Krishna) merges with other Indian icons of motherhood—sacred cows, the Lionseated goddess, “mother India” herself.
    • • Mixture of Hindu myths, quotations from Shakespeare Marx, and slang, dialect, literary Bengali, and English.
  47. Influential metaphor for the nation coined by Bengali writer and nationalist Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
    “Mother India”
  48. The Folklore of Shim Chong
    Types of Mythic Folktales that Contributed to the Tale of ShimChong: • Birth-dream tales: the main character comes into being after his or her parents dream a strange dream. • Filial piety tales: the main character is devoted to his or her parents, and miracles occur and good fortune follows. • Human sacrifice tales: for the well-being and peace of a community or a group of people, someone is sacrificed. • Regaining-eyesight tales: a blind person regains eyesight.
  49. Pansori
    •  “Pan” (gathering place, atmosphere, and situation) + “sori” (songs)
    • Theatrical singing of oral literature (one-person story-singing performance)*
    • Originates in the Shilla Kingdom (BCE 57-935)
    • Orally handed down through apprenticeship  Improvisational and interactive with the audience*
    •  5 out of 12 or more pansories from the past remain.
    •  Designated as Korea’s Important Intangible Cultural Heritage # 5 in 1964.
    •  Designated as UNESCO’s Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2003.
  50. Shim Chong Jeon (Classical novel of Shim Chong Ga)
    • • Reflects common people’s lifestyles and views.
    • • Describes characters humorously.*
    • • Has a moral.
    • • Shows the Confucian value of filial piety.* • Shows elements of Buddhism and Taoism. • Shows a mixture of the real world and the mythic world.*
    • • Shows a desire to make a better reality by overcoming unfortunate realities.
  51. Pansori Singer
    • 1. Character quality (인물치례): personhood 2. Literary quality (사설치례): tension and release 3. Vocal quality (득음): husky (but clear), harsh (but soft), calm (but strong), etc. *
    • 4. Gesture quality (너름새): diverse characters and situations of the lyrics. complementary and supportive.
  52. Pansori Drummer
    Active player (similar to a conductor and director)
  53. Pansori Audience
    Common people, but increasingly aristocrats (18th,19th-C) Provides chu-im-sae (i.e., words of approval)
  54. Chu-im-sae (i.e., words of approval)*
    • 얼씨구 (Ul-see-gu !): How exciting!
    • 좋다 (Jo-tah !): Good!
    • 잘한다 (Jaronda !): Great job! You’re doing it!
    Chu-im-sae (Pansori participation words of approval)
  55. Oh Taesuk
    • a leading Korean avant-garde playwright & director and pioneer in incorporating Korea’s pre-colonial/indigenous cultures in Korean theatre of the post-liberation era.*
    • • (He revises plays constantly for performances, so there is no “fixed” play.)* 123456789101112134/22/13 4 • (He revises plays constantly for performances, so there is no “fixed” play.)*
    • • This play premiered in 1990 at the Mokwha ChungdolTheatre.*
    • • It consists of no Acts, but Scenes named by different locations.*
  56. Why Did Shim Chong Plunge into the Sea Twice?
    • Oh Taesuk
    • A play, based on image and association, rather than logical plot progression.
    • • Defies dramatic conventions.
    • • Based on what he views as Korean pre-colonial/indigenous performance aesthetics • -> “Omissions and leaps”
    • • -> Humorous embodiment despite/along with tragic sentiments (hence, tragicomic)
    • • Uses acting style inspired by Korean traditional performances,especially kkodugeuk (Korean traditional puppetry).
    • • Dramatizes the absurdity of Korean postcolonial reality.
    • • Incorporates both traditional and contemporary cultures.
  57. Taesuk Oh’s aesthetics * (Based on Indigenous Performances)
    • Omissions
    • Leaps
    • Unexpectedness
    • Spontaneity
  58. References to Korean Reality in the post-colonial period (Shim Chong)
    • The Market:
    • Struggle for life, Theft, Women as Commodities.
    • Student Demonstrations:  
    • Demonstrations for the democratization of S. Korea against dictatorial regimes in the 70s and 80s.
    • The New Village Movement Song
    • Part of Korea’s rapid modernization and industrialization efforts in the 70s.
    • Martyr Yon-Bong Gil:
    • Independence fighter during colonial rule
    • Prostitutes in the boxes:
    • The Red light districts that were formed through colonialism, war, poverty, and the presence of U.S. forces.
  59. Zhang Yimou
    To Live (1994)
  60. Chinese History Related to the Film, To Live.
    • • The Qing Dynasty ended in 1911.
    • • The Nationalist Party and the Communist Party in China vied for control.
    • • By 1949, the Communist Party seized power in mainland China, while the Nationalist Party moved to Taiwan.
    • • Mao Zedong proclaimed The People’s Republic of China in 1949.
    • • PRC had campaigns and five-year plans (Great Leap Forward was an socio-economic campaign—including collectivization—to turn the country into a modern communist society, but by theearly 1960s, millions of Chinese people had starved.)
    • • Mao and his group launched the Cultural Revolution (a propaganda movement from 1966 to 1976) to solidify their power; this movement attempted to “destroy the old” by removing capitalist, traditional, and bourgeois elements (including intellectuals such as experienced doctors).
    • • Mao died in 1976.
  61. Zhang Yimou (1951-)
    • • Chinese Film director (he has made about 20 films)
    • • Some of his major films: Red Sorghum (1987), Ju Dou (1990), Raise the Red Lantern (1991), To Live (1994), The Flowers of War (2011).
    • • Many of his films (including To Live) have been banned in China.
    • • Gong Li performed in six of his films (Zhang and Li brought sensuality and eroticism to Chinese cinema)
    • • Creator-director of the 2008 Beijing Olympics opening and closing ceremonies.
Card Set
World Lit Final
Final exam prep North Georgia World Lit with Dr. Kwon.