Cognitive Psych Exam 2 Vocab

  1. Encoding Specificity
    The tendency, when memorizing, to place in memory both the materials to e learned and also some amount of the context of those materials.  As a result, these materials will be recognized as familiar, later on, only if the materials appear again in a similar context.
  2. Repetition Priming
    A pattern of priming that occurs simply because a stimulus is presented a second time; processing is more efficient on the second presentation.
  3. Decay Theory of Forgetting
    The hypothesis that with the passage of time, memories may fade or erode.
  4. Interference theory of Forgetting
    The hypothesis that materials are lost from memory because of interference from other materials also in memory.
  5. Proactive interference
    Interference that is caused by materials learned prior to the learning episode
  6. Retroactive Interference
    Interference that is caused by materials learned after the learning episode.
  7. False Memory
    A memory, sincerely reported, that misrepresents how an event actually unfolded.  In some cases, a false memory can be wholly false and can report an event that never happened at all.
  8. Misinformation Effect
    An effect in which reports about an earlier event are influenced by misinformation someone received after experiencing the event. In the extreme, misinformation can be used to create false memories concerning an entire event that, in truth, never occurred.
  9. Lexical Decision Task
    A test in which participants are shown strings of letters and must indicate, as quickly as possible, whether each string of letters is a word in English or not.  It is supposed that people perform this task by "looking up" these strings in their "mental dictionary"
  10. Priming
    A process through which one input or cue prepares a person for an upcoming input or cue.
  11. Connectionism
    An approach to theorizing about the mind that relies on parallel distributed processing among element that provide a distributed representation of the information being considered.
  12. Word-Superiority Effect
    The data pattern in which research participants are more accurate and more efficient in recognizing words (and word like letter strings) than they are in recognizing individual letters.
  13. Aphasia
    A disruption to language capacities, often caused by brain damage.
  14. Anterograde Amnesia
    An inability to remember experiences that occurred AFTER the event that triggered the memory disruption.
  15. Autobiographical Memory
    The aspect of memory that records the episodes and events in a persons life.
  16. Consolidation
    The biological process through which new memories are "cemented in place", acquiring some degree of permanence through the creation of new (or altered) neural connections.
  17. Dual-Coding Theory
    A theory that imaginable materials, such as high imagery words, will be doubly represented in memory: The word itself will be remember, and so will the corresponding mental image.
  18. Flashbulb Memory
    A memory of extraordinary clarity, typically fr some highly emotional event, retained despite the passage of many years.
  19. Input Node
    A node, within a network, that receives at least part of its activation from detectors sensitive to events in the external world.
  20. Linguistic Universal
    A rule that appears to apply to every human language
  21. Noun Phrase (NP)
    One of the constituents of a phrase structure that defines a sentence.
  22. Production Task
    An experimental procedure used in studying concepts, in which the person is asked to name as many examples as possible.
  23. What is an example of a production task?
    Name as many fruits as possible.
  24. Retrieval Cue
    An instruction or stimulus input, provided at the time of recall, that can potentially guide recall and help the person to retrieve the target memory.
  25. Retrograde Amnesia
    An inability to remember experiences that occurred BEFORE the event that triggered the memory disruption.
  26. Self-Reference Effect
    The tendency to have a better memory for information relevant to oneself than for other sorts of material.
  27. Source Memory
    A form of memory that allows you to recollect the episode in which learning took place or the time and place in which a particular stimulus was encountered.
  28. Speech Segmentation
    The process through which a stream of speech is "sliced" into its constituent words and, within words, into the constituent phonemes.
  29. Surface Structure
    The representation of a sentence that is actually expressed in speech.  In some treatments, this structure is referred to as "s-structure".
  30. Syntax
    Rules governing the sequences and combinations of words in the formation of phrases and sentences.
  31. Typicality
    The degree to which a particular case (An object, or a situation, or an event) is typical for its kind.
  32. Verb Phrase (VP)
    One of the constituents of a phrase structure that defines a sentence.
  33. Back Propagation
    A learning procedure, common in connectionist networds, in which an error signal is used to adjust the inputs to a node within the network (so that the node will be less responsive in the future to the inputs that led it to the inappropriate response) The error signal is then transmitted to those same inputs, so that they can make their own similar adjustments.  IN this way the error signal is transmitted backward through the network, starting with the nodes that immediately triggered the incorrect response, but with each node then passing the error signal back to the nodes that caused it to fire.
  34. Basic-Level Categorization
    A level of categorization hypothesized as the "natural" and most informative level, neither too specific nor too general.  People tend to use basic level terms (such as "chair", rather than the more general "furniture" or more specific "arm-chair") in their ordinary conversation and in their reasoning.
  35. Categorical Perception
    The tendency to hear speech sounds "merely" as members of a category. The category of "z" sounds, the category of "p" sounds, and so on.  As a consequence, one tends to hear sounds within the category as being rather similar to each other, sounds from different categories, however, are perceived as quite different.
  36. Coarticulation
    A trait of speech production in which the way a sound is produced is altered slightly by the immediately following sounds.  Because of this "overlap" in speech production, the acoustic properties of each speech sound vary according to the context in which that sound appears
  37. Connection Weight
    The strength of a connection between 2 nodes in a network.  The greater the connection weight, the more efficiently activation will flow from one node to another.
  38. Explicit Memory
    A memory revealed by direct memory testing and typically accompanied by the conviction that one is, drawing on some sort of knowledge (perhaps knowledge about a specific prior episode, or perhaps a more general knowledge)
  39. Family Resemblance
    The notion that members of a category (all dogs, games, etc) resemble each other.  In general, family resemblance relies on some number of features being shared by any group of category members, even though those features may not be shared by all members of the category.  Therefore, the basis for family resemblance may shift from one subset of category to another.
  40. Function Morpheme
    A morpheme that signals a relation between words within a sentence, such as the morpheme "s" indicating a plural in English, or the morpheme "ed" indicated past tense.
  41. Functional Equivalence
    A series of close parallels in how 2 systems work - how they respond to inputs, what errors they make, and so on.
  42. Garden-Path Sentence
    A sentence that initially leads the reader to one understanding of how the sentences words are related but then requires a change in this understanding in order to comprehend this sentence. (ex: the old man ships)
  43. Implicit Memory
    A memory revealed by indirect memory testing and usually manifested as a priming effect in which current performance is guided or facilitated by previous experiences.  Implicit memories are often accompanied by no conscious realization that one is, in fact, being influenced by specific past experiences.
  44. Korsakoff's Syndorme
    A clinical syndrome characterized primarily by dense anterograde amnesia.  Its caused by damage to specific brain regions and its often precipitated by a form of malnutrition common among long-term alcoholics.
  45. Linguistic Relativity
    The proposal that the language that we speak shapes our thought, because the structure and vocabulary of our language create certain ways of thinking about the world.
  46. Mental Rotation
    A process that participants seem to use in comparing one imagine form to another.  To make the comparison, participants seem to imagine on form rotating into alignment with the other, so that the forms can be compared.
  47. Node
    An individual unit within an associate network. In a scheme using local representations, nodes represent single ideas or concepts.  In a scheme using distributed representations, ideas, or contents are represented by a pattern of activation across  wide number of nodes; the same nodes may also participate in other patterns and therefore in other representations.
  48. Organized Depictions
    A representation that directly reflects the layout and appearance of an object or scene (and so is on this basis a "depiction") but that also adds some specifications about how the depiction is to be understood.
  49. Over-Regularization Error
    An error in which someone perceives or remembers a word or event as being closer to the "norm" than it really is.
  50. What is an example of Over-Regularization Error?
    Misspelled words are perceived correctly, atypical events are misremembered in ways that make them more typical.
  51. Parallel Distributed Processing
    A system of handling information in which many steps happen at once (i.e. in parallel) and in which various aspects of the problem or task are represented only in a distributed fashion.
  52. Parsing
    The process through which an input is divided into its appropriate elements - Ex: dividing the stream of incoming speech into its constituent words - or in which a sequence of words is divided into its constituent phrases.
  53. Phonemes
    The basic categories of sound used to convey language. Ex: "peg" and "beg" differ in their initial phonemes "p" in one case and "b" in the other.
  54. Phrase Structure Rule
    A constraint that governs the pattern of branching in a phrase structure. Equivalently, phrase structure rules govern what the constituents must be for any syntactic element of a sentence.
  55. Pragmatics
    A term referring to knowledge of how language is ordinarily used, knowledge (for ex:) that tells most English speakers that "can you pass me the salt?" Is actually a request for the salt, not an inquiry about someones arm strength.
  56. Proposition
    The smallest unit of knowledge that can be either true or false.  Propositions are often expressed via simple sentences, but this is merely a convenience, and other modes of representation are available.
  57. Prototype Theory
    The claim that mental categories are represented by means of a single "best example", or prototype, identifying the "center" of the category.  In this view, decisions about category membership, and inferences about the category, are made with reference to this best example, often an average of the examples of that category that you have actually encountered.
  58. Recall
    The task of memory retrieval in which the remember-er must come up with the desired materials, sometimes in response to a cue that names the context in which these materials were earlier encountered, sometimes in response to a question that requires the sought after information.
  59. Recognition
    The task of memory retrieval in which the items to be remembered are presented that the person must decide whether or not the item was encountered in some earlier circumstance.
  60. Reconstruction
    A process in which one draws on broad patterns of knowledge in order to figure out how a prior event actually unfolded.  In some circumstances, people rely on reconstruction to fill gaps in what they recall; in other circumstances, people rely on reconstruction because it requires less effort than actual recall.
  61. Schema
    Knowledge describing what is typical or frequent in a particular situation.
  62. Sentence Verification Task
    An experimental procedure used for studying memory in which participants are given simple sentences and must respond as quickly as possible whether the sentence is true or false.
  63. Spreading Activation
    A process through which activation travels from one node to another, via associative links.  As each node becomes activated, it serves as a source for further activation, spreading onward through the network.
Card Set
Cognitive Psych Exam 2 Vocab
Cognitive Psych Exam 2 Vocab