Nervous System Test

  1. Designed to receive and transmit electrical and
    chemical signals throughout the body
    Nervous tissue
  2. Nervous (or neural) tissue is found in the
    brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves
  3. Nervous (or neural) tissue is composed
    primarily of two general cell types
    • Neurons
    • Neuroglial cells
  4. Name the 3 avenues of communication:
    Circulation, Nervous and Lymphatics
  5. Neurons are the longest cells in the body and are composed of three primary parts:
    • Perikaryon (stroma) – cell body
    • Dendrites – short cytoplasm extension
    • Axon – long single extension of cytoplasm
  6. ________ receive impulses from the other cells, 
    ________ conducts impulses away from the cell body
    • dendrite
    • axon
  7. Function of Neuroglial cells
    • support the neurons.
    • isolate the conductive membranes
    • provide a supportive framework that helps to bind the components to neuronal tissue together
    • phagocytize debris
    • help supply nutrients to neurons by connecting them to blood vessels
  8. What systems maintain homeostasis.
    • endocrine
    • nervous system
  9. The nervous system has three basic functions:
    • sensory functions (externally) pinch, 
    • integrating functions (within the spinal cord)
    • motor functions (externally) goes back to the effector ograns
  10. Impulse that goes from the spinal cord back to the muscle is called a
    simple reflex
  11. Section of the neuron that is large and contains the nucleus of the cell
    cell body (soma, stroma or perikaryon)
  12. synthesize the materials needed by the neuron
    (neurone), particularly energy (_______) and neurotransmitters (synthesized by the _______
    and _____________)
    • mitochondria 
    • ribosomes 
    • rough endoplasmic reticulum
  13. ________ give the grey coloration to the areas of the spinal cord that contain the cell bodies of the neurons, the so-called _________.
    • Nissl bodies 
    • grey matter
  14. Extensions from the soma that receive stimuli, or impulses from other neurons and convey this stimulation to the cell body
  15. Extension from the soma and conducts the nervous impulse away from the perikaryon toward another neuron or other type of cell.
  16. Axons are often covered in a fatty substance called
  17. Nervous tissue containing many myelinated axons is often referred to as _________.
    Nervous tissue without myelin = _________.
    • white matter 
    • gray matter
  18. Peripheral nerve covered in myelin is called
    Schwann cell
  19. The axon may branch along its length producing _______ that allow the nervous impulse to be transmitted to more than one other cell
  20. 4 CNS neuroglial cells are:
    astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia cells, and ependymal cells.
  21. 2 PNS neuroglial cells are
    satellite cells and Schwann cells
  22. Functions of Astrocytes (CNS cells):
    • 1. Responsible for the blood-brain barrier. 
    • 2. Stabilize the neurons from excessive movement and preventing damage to tissue.
    • 3. Can change the composition of the interstitial fluid bathing the neurons
  23. Malignant tumor of astrocyte cells
  24. If a nerve has no myelin, the lining of the nerve is termed 
    If the nerve has myelin in the form of oligodendrocyte cells of the CNS or Schwann cells of the PNS, the outer lining of the myelin is then termed the ______ while the nerve lining is the ________.
    • neuro or neurilemma 
    • neurolemma 
    • axolemma
  25. Function to wander through the CNS and with their phagocytic activity, engulf and destroy cellular waste products, debris and pathogens
    Microglia (CNS cells)
  26. Line the ventricles of the brain and spinal canal. They are responsible for the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord. They may also aid in its production and the monitoring of its composition
    Ependymal cells (CNS cells)
  27. Located in the PNS with Schwann cells. These cells surround the clusters of cell bodies known as ganglia (singular = ganglion), insulating them from their surroundings. They are responsible for surging the impulse in a different direction
    Satellite Cells (PNS cells)
  28. A space between the inner and middle of the
    three layers of connective tissue which surround the brain
    subarachnoid space
  29. The myelin sheath is actually the cell membrane of specialized glial cells called ________ in the brain and spinal cord and __________ in the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord.
    • Oligodendrocytes
    • Schwann cells
  30. Between adjacent glial cells are small gaps in
    the myelin sheath called
    Nodes of Ranvier
  31. _______ are fat cells
    ______ is tumor of fat cells in the spinal cord
    • Glial
    • Glioma
  32. There is no anatomical method differentiating between axons and dendrites. All cell processes appear similar. Normally seen in the brain
    Anaxonic neurons
  33. Have two processes arising from the cell body in the middle. Normally seen in the ear, eye, and nose
  34. Have a continuous dendritic and axonal process with the cell body lying of to one side. Generally have a long axon and in PNS. Example cranial nerves
  35. Have one axon from cell body with several dendrites coming in. Most common CNS. Prototypical neuron
  36. Sensory – of the PNS are _____ – they carry impulses from the sensory receptors toward or into the CNS
  37. Motor – of the PNS are _____ – they carry impulses from the CNS to peripheral tissues, organs or organ systems
  38. _______ Are those situated between sensory and motor neurons and are found only in the CNS. These are sometimes called ________.
    • Interneurons 
    • association
  39. ____________ neurons carry information from the external environment to the CNS
    Somatic sensory
  40. __________ neurons carry information from within the animal (its organs and other systems) to the CNS
    Visceral sensory
  41. Each axon is surrounded by a fibrous connective tissue called the ______ and that groups of these axons are held in bundles by connective tissue known as the ___________. These are further held together by an outer fibrous sheath called the _______which also encloses a blood supply and fat deposits
    • endoneurium 
    • perineurium
    • epineurium
  42. Axons with myelin sheath = __________.
    Axon on axon itself referred to as _________.
    • neurolemma
    • axolemma
  43. Study of the functioning of nervous tissue, i.e. how the neurons and glial cells transmit and process information
  44. Extracellular Fluid (ECF) has a high concentration of ___________ and _______ 
    Intracellular Fluid (ICF) has a high concentration of _______ and ________.
    • sodium ions (Na+) and chloride ions (Cl-)
    • potassium ions (K+) and negatively charged proteins
  45. There is an overall excess of negative charge on the inner surface of the membrane when compared to the outer surface. This difference in electrical charge is called the _________ or _________ of the cell membrane
    • transmembrane potential 
    • resting potential
  46. K+ moves out of the neuron and the Na+ moves into the neuron normally without the sodium/potassium pump in _________ through the K+ channels and Na+ channels;
    It takes energy in the form of ________ to move the Na+ ions out for K+ ions that they move in.
    Active transport is also known as
    • Passive Transport 
    • Active Transport
    • Passive diffusion.
  47. The transmembrane potential across the cell membrane is approximately –70mV in a resting neuron. This is also referred to as the _____ and the cell membrane can be said to be ____.
    • resting potential
    • polarized
  48. When the inside of the cell becomes positively charged and the outside negatively charged, for a short period of time. This process is known as ______ and the change in potential is called the ________.
    • depolarization 
    • action potential
  49. The level of depolarization that is required before an action potential can be triggered is called the
  50. The strength of the muscle contraction is dependent on
    the number of muscle fibers stimulated
  51. Amount of energy needed to start to stimulate the nerve is called
    threshold stimulus or Action potential
  52. If a second stimulus acts upon a neuron in which an action potential is ongoing, then a second action potential will not be produced. The neuron at this stage is unresponsive and is said to be in a
    refractory stage
  53. The time that it takes for the neuron to be able to generate a second action potential from the start of the first is called the
    absolute refractory period
  54. The period between the end of the absolute refractory period (when it is impossible to initiate another action potential) and a return to the resting potential is known as the
    relative refractory period
  55. Transmission between one neuron and another neuron occurs at the
  56. Transmission between a neuron and muscle fiber occurs at the
    neuromuscular junction
  57. At the synapse, the action potential from the axon of first nerve cell is carried across the interstitial space, known as the _______, to the dendrites of the next nerve cell
    synaptic cleft
  58. Type of transmission that occurs when the two cells are very close together, as the synaptic gap or cleft is small. In some, but few cases, the membranes may be fused. In the cells that are very close together, the action potential is automatically propagated into the adjacent cell by causing a membrane depolarization, just as the action potential is propagated along the axon itself
  59. Type of transmission when the synaptic gap is large, an impulse in the presynaptic neuron causes the release of a chemical into the gap
  60. Peripheral Neurotransmitter classification:
    • 1. Amino acids
    • 2. Monamines (modified amino acids)
    • 3. Polypeptides
  61. Four receptors of norepinehrine
    alpha 1, alpha 2, beta 1, beta 2
  62. Inhibitor of acetylcholine
  63. 2 Transmitters of the CNS
    • 1. Gama- aminobutyric acid (GABA) - Inhibitory neurotransmitter of CNS. Binding GABA to its receptor produces  hyperpolarization or inhibition. Blocks out external sounds.
    • 2. Glutamate - Excitatory neurotransmitter of CNS. Receptors for Glutamate are involved with memory and learning
  64. Function of Cerebrospinal Fluid is to
    • Protect the brain and spinal cord by forming a fluid cushion between the delicate nerve tissues and the bones of the skull and vertebral column
    • Maintains constant pressure within the skull
    • Carries waste and toxic substances away from the tissue to the interstitial fluid of the CNS
  65. Infection of the brain
  66. Infection of the spinal cord and brain
  67. Infection of the spinal cord
    Meningitis AKA Myelitis
  68. The three layers of connective tissue which surround the brain are known as the ________ and consist of
    • meninges
    • Pia mater – lies on the surface of the spinal cord
    • Arachnoid mater – separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid space via CSF
    • Dura mater – is the outer layer and is a thick membrane composed of tough fibrous tissue that lines the inside of the skull forming the periosteum
  69. Samples taken by the veterinarian may be collected for analysis from an enlargement of the subarachnoid space at the base of the skull called the
    cisterna magna
  70. Both the ___ and _______ are also responsible for the basic control of heart rate and respiration, known as the _______. The third area, the _______ controls the motor coordination of the body
    • pons and medulla
    • brainstem reflexes
  71. The spinal cord runs within the protective vertebral column from the ___________, terminating at the ____________.
    • cisterna magna
    • cauda equina
  72. How many spinal nerves leave the spinal cord, passing through the intervertebral foramina, each passing to a different part of the body
    Thirty six pairs
  73. Efferent Nerves can be divided into two broad categories
    • 1. those which are part of the PNS-Somatic Nerves, supply skeletal muscle
    • 2. And those PNS - supplying smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands from the Autonomic System (AS).
  74. Somatic Nerves carry impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles
    Efferent Nerves of the PNS-
  75. Which Cranial Sensory nerve carries the sense of smell impulses to the brain.
  76. Cranial Motor – carry impulses from the brain to
    the effector organ muscles of the eye.
  77. Cranial Mixed - carry impulses from the brain to the effector organ and back to the brain.
    Motor jaw movement sensory from skin to the facial region
  78. Nerves that supply the entire musculoskeletal system
  79. Optic 
    Type of nerve
    • Sensory 
    • Vision
  80. Oculomotor
    Type of nerve
    • Motor
    • Eye movement, pupil size, focusing lens
  81. Trochlear
    Type of nerve
    • Motor
    • Eye movement
  82. Trigeminal
    Type of nerve
    • Mixed
    • Movement of jaw muscles; sensory from facial region
  83. Abducent
    Type of nerve
    • Motor
    • Eye Movement
  84. Facial
    Type of nerve
    • Mixed 
    • Muscles of facial expression; Muscles of the tongue
  85. Auditory
    Type of nerve
    • Sensory
    • Balance and hearing
  86. Glossopharyngeal
    Type of nerve
    • Mixed
    • Motor to the pharynx; Sensory – taste from tongue
  87. Vagus
    Type of nerve
    • Mixed
    • Supplies the larynx, thoracic and abdominal viscera including, digestive tract, controlling its movements and secretions
  88. Accessory
    Type of nerve
    • Motor
    • Movement of neck, pharynx and soft palate
  89. Hypoglossal
    Type of nerve
    • Motor
    • Tongue movement
  90. Network of nerve fibers that gives rise to the radial, ulnar, and medial nerves supplying the forelimb
    brachial plexus
  91. Network of nerve fibers that gives rise to the sciatic, obturator, perineal, pudendal, and others
    pelvic plexus
  92. Suprascapular innervates with what muscles
    supraspinatus and infraspinatus
  93. Pectorals innervates with what muscles
    • Descending superficial pectoralis
    • Transverse superficial pectoralis
    • Deep pectoral
    • Xiphihumeralis
  94. Musculocutaneous innervates with what muscles
    biceps brachii and brachialis
  95. Axillary innervates with what muscles
    teres minor and deltoids
  96. Radial innervates with what muscles
    triceps brachii, anconeus, and extensors distal to the elbow
  97. Ulnar innervates with what muscles
    Flexors distal to the elbow
  98. Median innervates with what muscles
    Flexors distal to the elbow not covered by ulnar
  99. Thoracodorsal innervates with what muscles
    Latissimus dorsi (draws the limb caudally)
  100. Lateral thoracic innervates with what muscles
    Cutaneous trunci
  101. Cranial Gluteal innervates with what muscles
    Middle and deep gluteal and tensor fasciae latae
  102. Caudal Gluteal innervates with what muscles
    Superficial gluteal, semitendinosus, biceps femoris (only in horse)
  103. Femoral innervates with what muscles
    Sartorius, quadriceps femoris
  104. Obturator innervates with what muscles
    adductors, gracilis, pectineus, obturator externus
  105. Sciatic innervates with what muscles
    Semimembranosus, biceps femoris, obturator internus, gemelli, quadratus femoris
  106. Peroneal innervates with what muscles
    Tibialis cranialis, long digital extensor, peroneus
  107. Tibial innervates with what muscles
    Gastrocnemius, superficial digital flexor, tibialis caudalis, popliteus
  108. Pavlov proved that a dog would salivate when food is placed in the mouth, and as such is an inborn involuntary action, known as a _____. Later Pavlov would associate the bell ringing with food and before long dogs would salivate when they heard the bell only. This type of
    response is called a ________.
    • reflex response 
    • Conditioned Reflex Response
  109. 8 Reflexes for Surgical Monitoring 
    Anesthetic depth can be indicated by the utilization of basic reflexes.
    • 1. Palpebral (blink reflex) – Qtip in eye – eyelid will quiver
    • 2. Pedal – pinch toe – animal pulls leg back
    • 3. Ear flick – rub hair inside pinnae – ear quivers
    • 4. Corneal – Qtip on cornea – cornea quivers
    • 5. Size of Pupil – dilation of pupil
    • 6. Pupillary Light – shine light in eye – both eyes should constrict – consensual light reflex
    • 7. Heart and Respiratory – always going to be suppressed.
    • 8. Response to Surgical Stimuli – Cut on an animal and it moves
  110. 2 forms of the afferent system of the PNS.
    • 1. Somatic sensory neurons
    • 2. Visceral sensory neurons
  111. Provide information about the external environment of the animal.
    Somatic Sensory Neurons
  112. Monitor the internal environment and organs
    Visceral Sensory Neurons
  113. Classification of Receptors - Where they receive their stimulus:
    1 These are stimulated by information from the external environment such as touch, sight, smell, hearing, taste, pressure and temperature.
    2. These monitor movements and position of the skeletal muscles and joints.
    3. These monitor the internal environment such as the respiratory, digestive, urinary,
    cardiovascular and reproductive systems. They are also stimulated by deep pressure and pain.
    • Exteroceptors
    • Proprioceptors
    • Interoceptors
  114. Structure of the Receptors
    ___________ are involved in detecting touch and painful stimuli are located in the skin, muscles, and viscera. Nerve endings in the cornea are also stimulated by touch pressure and temperature
    Unspecialized free nerve endings
  115. Structure of the Receptors
    ________ or __________, are located in the dermis of the skin and respond to touch and pressure
    Specialized or encapsulated nerve endings
  116. Structure of the Receptors
    __________ receptor cells which are located in the ear and eye , as well as the taste buds
    Specialized non-neuronal
  117. Detect chemical changes in the local area around the receptor. Example the ones in the brain detect changes in oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood as well as osmoreceptors detect changes in salt concentrations
  118. Responds to touch and pressure and are predominantly located in the skin. There are also receptors that detect the degree of stretch of muscles in the stomach, lungs and blood vessels
  119. Are stimulated by changes in temperature and are located in the skin
  120. Usually triggered by any stimulus that may cause tissue damage or injury. Release of chemicals in an area of inflammation may also trigger these receptors
    Pain receptors or nociceptors
  121. Are stimulated by light and are found in the retina of the eye.
    Electromagnetic receptors
  122. Are a collective term used to group together all the receptors that relay information about the position of the body and its movements.
  123. The postganglionic sympathetic neurons with which they synapse are located in three different locations:
    • a. sympathetic chain ganglia or lateral ganglia
    • b. collateral ganglia
    • c. adrenal medulla
  124. Sympathetic Chain Ganglia 
    Stimulation causes:
    • constriction of blood vessels in the skin
    • increase blood to skeletal muscles and brain,
    • release of lipid from fat stores,
    • dilation of pupils
    • acceleration of heart rate and strength of cardiac contraction, and
    • bronchodilation
  125. Collateral Ganglia 
    Stimulation causes:
    • reduced blood flow to visceral organs
    • decreased activity of digestive system 
    • release of glucose from glycogen reserves in the liver
    • reduction in the rate of formation of urine
    • stimulation of release of lipids from fat stores
  126. Adrenal Medulla - neurotransmitters release directly into the blood stream. This mechanism allows the neurotransmitters, _______ (________) and _______ (________) to have an effect as hormones on many target cells throughout the body
    • epinephrine (adrenaline)
    • norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
  127. Pharmaceuticals that produce sympathetic responses are referred to as being
  128. norepinephrine effects ________
    epinephrine effects ___________
    • alpha   
    • alpha and beta
  129. List the receptors that are involved with shock:
    • Alpha 1 – constrict blood vessels and allows the blood to be diverted to areas that need the blood like the heart
    • Beta 1 – acts on cardiac muscle to increase cardiac output by speeding up the impulse and force of the contraction. 
    • Beta 2 – acts on smooth muscle to relax smooth muscles of airways to ease breathing and allow for increase of absorption of oxygen
  130. Major nerve that carries information from most of the parasympathetic division is called the __________ and supplies all the organs and structures within the thorax and abdomen.
    Vagus Nerve (X)
  131. Not all organs have dual innervation. List 3 examples
    • The spleen and adrenal medullae have only sympathetic innervation
    • The ciliary muscles of the eye are only innervated by the parasympathetic system thus causing a constriction.
  132. A base level of activity that can increase or decrease, depending upon the situation
    State of tone
  133. The parasympathetic system exerts a basal tone on the activity of the _____ via the ______.
    • heart 
    • vagus nerve.
  134. More complex processes require the use of higher levels in the brain and are coordinated within the
    medulla oblongata
  135. The medulla and pons are regulated by the
  136. Cranial nerves that control respiration and pulse are
    IX Glossopharyngeal and X Vagus
Card Set
Nervous System Test
Nervous System