Pharm. Exam 4

  1. What drugs should not be taken with caffeine, citrus juices, cola or tomato juice?
  2. Penicillins are ______ spectrum.
  3. Penicillins bacteriostatic or bactericidal ?
  4. Mechanism of action for Penicillins?
    Cell wall inhibitors
  5. Patients that are allergic to penicillin may also have a reaction to _____.
  6. Superinfection?
    • Candidiasis 
    • Thrush 
    • Steven Johnson's syndrome
    • Diarrhea - C Diff
    • Photo sensitivity
  7. Lower doses of penicillin may be indicated in patients with what issues?
    Renal disease - because excretion is reduced
  8. Drug-Drug interactions may occur with Penicillin?
    Effects of the penicillin will be reduced if taken with Tetracycline 

     will become ineffecive if given concurrently with penicillin in a parenteral (IV) forms.
  9. Amoxicillin is what type of drug?
    Penicillin anti-biotic
  10. Penicillins should be taken how?
    empty stomach with 8 oz. of water - 1 hour before or 2-3 hours after meals.
  11. How do Sulfonamides work?
    inhibit folic acid synthesis. needed for RNA/DNA in bacteria. 

    Block PABA
  12. What are sulfa drugs used to treat?
    UTI's and trachoma
  13. Contraindication/ Cross sensitvity for Sulfa drugs:
    • Know allergy to thiazide diuretics
    • Pregnancy
    • Renal disease - or if patient on cyclosporin
    • Kidney Stones
  14. What should you avoid when taking cephalosporins? why?
    alcohol - will cause an antabuse like reaction
  15. Contraindications for Cephalosporins:
    Allergies to penicillin
  16. How would you give cephalosporins?
    with food to avoid GI upset
  17. What type of drugs may increase glucose levels?
  18. Drug-drug interactions for Cephalosporins?
    aminoglycosides, oral anticoagulants, and ETOH (alcohol abuse)
  19. What types of drugs are used to fight specific bacteria?
  20. Name the cell wall inhibitors of antibiotics?
    Penicillin, Cephalosporins, Monobactums, Vencomycin
  21. All cell wall inhibitors are bacter_______.
  22. Cell wall inhibitors are also know as ____ _____ antibiotics.
  23. Monobactums work by disrupting the cell wall and ...
    promoting the leakage of cellular content and cell death
  24. What are monobactums used to treat?
    Intra-abdominal and Gynecological infections, UTI, skin infections
  25. How is monobactum given?
    • IV or IM only 
    • Will cross placenta
  26. Contraindications for use of Monobactum?
    • Known allergies to penicillins or cephalosporins 
    • Renal or Hepatic dysfunction
    • Pregnant or lactating women
  27. Side effects of Vancomycin
    • Red Neck Syndrome (red face, arms, back)
    • Ototoxicity
    • Renal Failure
  28. Drug of choice to treat Clostridum difficile:
  29. Name the Protein Synthesis inhibitors:
    • Aminoglycosides 
    • Tetracyclines 
    • Macrolides
    • Lincosamides
  30. What to monitor with Vancomycin
    • Peak and trough 
    • hearing
    • renal function
    • temperature 
    • blood culture 
    • CBC
  31. What are Aminoglycosides used to treat?
    gram-negative aerobic bacilli
  32. How do protein synthesis inhibitors work?
    • they inhibit the 30S & 50S protein syntheses 
    • in bacteria.

    Humans us 40s & 60s
  33. What to monitor when giving Aminoglycosides:
    • Peak & Trough 
    • Whisper test
    • May be kidney toxic
    • Creatinine & BUN
    • Vestibular fxn
  34. Can a pregnant mom take cephalosporin?
  35. Aminoglycosides are bactero_____.
    bacterosidal & Narrow spectrum
  36. Adverse effects of Amnioglycodise:
    • Ototoxicity 
    • Nephrotoxicity 
    • May also cause numbness (parastesias)
  37. Can''t HEAR, can't SEE, can't FEEL:
  38. Macrolides should not be given with:
    Coumadin or anticoagulants
  39. Mechanism of action for Macrolides:
    interfere with protein synthesis in susceptible  bacteria.
  40. Erythromycin is the drug of choice to treat what? what type of drug is it?
    • Strep throat - Macrolide 
    • This one specifically should be given on an empty stomach
  41. Drug-drug interaction with Macrolides :
    Digoxin &  oral anti-coagulants
  42. First step in use of systemic antifungals?
  43. How do Azoles work?
    bind to sterols and cause cell death or interfere with replication
  44. What does ZOLE stand for?
    • Z many interactions
    • Observe hygiene 
    • Liver enzymes 
    • Educate, take with food
  45. What does Diflucan inhibit (specifically)?
    CYP450 enzyme - this may be associated with drug-drug interactions
  46. Tetracyclines all end in what?
  47. How do Tetracyclines work?
    inhibit protein synthesis in susceptible bacteria, preventing cell replication
  48. Contraindicatoins for Tetracyclines:
    • Allergy
    • Pregnant / lactation
  49. Drug-Drug interactions Tetracyclines:
    • oral contraceptives
    • Penicillin G
    • Digoxin
  50. How would you give Tetracyclines:
    • AVOID milk products; iron preparations
    • Give on a empty stomach with water 
    • may cause photosensitivity
  51. Name the inhibitors of Bacterial Replication:
    • Quinolones 
    • Sulfa Drugs
  52. How do Fluoroquinolones work?
    interferes with DNA replication , preventing cell replication
  53. What do all  Fluoroquinolones end in?
  54. Who would be contraindicated in the use of Fluoroquinolones:
    • Patients under 18 years of age 
    • Pregnant women
Card Set
Pharm. Exam 4
Pharmacology test 4