1. Symphonie Fantastique
    • a.       Info: first complete program symphony and most famous piece of Hector Berlioz; in it, he used music to evoke the passionate emotion of a tortured love affair, including a fifth movement in which he musically creates an opium-induced nightmare of a witches’ gathering
    • b.      The movements represent the series of visions in which his beloved figures as a theme, which recurs in every movement, but in a different form
  2. Henri Bergson
    • a.       Info: French philosopher whose lectures at the University of Paris made him one of the most important influences in French thought in the early 20th century; accepted the rational, scientific thought as a practical instrument for providing useful knowledge but said it was incapable of arriving at truth or ultimate reality; reality could only be grasped intuitively and experienced directly; when we analyze it, we lose this reality
    • b.      Awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1927
  3. Emmeline Pankhurst
    • a.       Info: took a more radical approach to advocating the right to vote; created the Women’s Social and Political Union in 1903, which enrolled mostly middle- and upper-class women; members of her organization realized the value of media and were labeled “suffragettes”, pelting officials, chaining selves to lampposts, etc.
    • b.      In 1889, she founded the Women’s Franchise League, which fought to allow married women the right to vote in local elections
    • c.       Arrested on numerous occasions
  4. Henry Morton Stanley
    • a.       Info: British American journalist; born John Rowlands in Great Britain, but rose to fame as American citizen in the employ of Belgian king, Leopold II; had an expedition from the New York Herald to locate Dr. David Livingstone; his explorations, which were brutal, caused Leopold to take interest in the Congo basin, who asked him to explore the region
    • b.      Most famous for uttering the words, “Dr. Livingstone, I presume”
  5. Gustave Courbet
    • a.       Info: French Realist painter; most famous artist of the Realist school; Realism was coined to describe one of his paintings; reveled in realistic portrayal of everyday life; subjects were factory workers, peasants, etc.; The Stonebreakers
    • b.      Painter of figurative compositions, landscapes, and seascapes and believed that realism wasn’t about perfection in line and form
  6. Florence Nightingale
    • a.       Info: born in Florence, Italy; she saved a large majority of the British population from dying in the Crimean War through her insistence on strict sanitary conditions; her efforts, as well as Clara Barton’s, transformed nursing into the profession of trained, middle class “women in white”
    • b.      In 1860, she established St. Thomas’ Hospital and the Training School for Nurses
  7. The Communist Manifesto
    Info: a short treatise written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels for the Communist League, published in German; closing lines were “Working Men of All Countries—UNITE. Ideas were that society is the history of class struggles, between the oppressed and the oppressors. The feudal class was against the bourgeoisie; the bourgeoisie were victors and now oppose the working class; but the proletariat will eventually rise up and the state would wither away; class struggles would be over and a classless society would emerge
  8. The Napoleonic Code
    • a.       Info: an article that was easily read and understood by the average citizen; it reflected greater equality for men  before the law, though women lost some of the rights they acquired during the Revolution; it incorporated many of the National Assembly’s 1789 changes
    • b.      Forbade privileges based on birth, allowed religious freedom, and said that government jobs go to the most qualified (which is what people wanted from the very beginning); it was adopted by numerous other places after
  9. Klemens von Metternic
    a.       Info: Austrian foreign minister from 1809 until driven into exile during revolution of 1848; principal architect of the peace settlement that ended the Napoleonic wars and ushered in the “long peace” of the 19th century; hated liberalism and nationalism; experienced diplomat and leader of the Congress of Vienna; a conservative; claimed to be guided at Vienna by the principle of legitimacy; tried to repress the “revolutionary seed”
  10. John Aikin
    • a.       Info: trained as a physician but better known as writer and editor of biography. In 1795, he published A Description of the Country from Thirty to Forty Miles Round Manchester, where he described the thriving city of Manchester in terms of its industry. First editor of The Monthly Magazine;
    • b.      He also epitomized the dissenting spirit that advocated religious expression; made contributions to both the cause of religious freedom and fields of botany, geography, biography, etc. 
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