HIV and other Retroviruses

  1. Retroviruses
    HTLVs (Human T-cell Lymphotrophic Viruses)

    Single stranded RNA viruses, converted to DNA by reverse transcriptase and integrated into host chromosome
    • HIV 1-primary human pathogen, causes AIDS
    • HIV 2-mild illness

    HIV high mutation rate, multiple subtypes (Clades)
  3. HIV Epidemiology
    • Highest in Africa
    • Transmitted via sex, percutaneous, mother to infant
    • Affected by stage, source, amount, and susceptibility
    • Casual contact not a risk
  4. Pathophysiology
    • Rapid turnover
    • Rapid production of virus
    • Profound immune response
    • Attaches to soluble receptors (CCR and CD4)
    • Destroys cells (CD4)
    • Early infection mostly in lymph nodes
    • Affects immune system (impairs cell mediated immunity and altered production of antibodies)
    • Viral replication linked to cell function
  5. Clinical manifestation
    • Acute infection
    • Asymptomatic infection
    • Early advanced active infection
    • Late advanced active infection
    • AIDS
  6. Diagnosis
    • Serology
    • Direct detection
    • culture
    • amplification
    • major ramifications
  7. Treatment
    • antiretrovirals (controls viral replication)
    • Nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors
    • Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
    • Nucleotide analog reverse trascriptase inhibitor
    • Protease inhibitors
    • Drugs given in combination
    • Drug therapy determined by "viral load"
    • Immune reconstitution
  8. Prevention
    • General population (safe sex)
    • Health care workers (blood borne pathogen, consider everything bio-hazard, do not get cut, report injury ASAP)
    • Prevention is better than treatment
Card Set
HIV and other Retroviruses
Basic overview of retroviruses, epidemiology of HIV, HIV viral dynamics, describe clinical manifestation of HIV, basic overview of treatment and ways of prevention.