What is the main animal we are concerned about migrating into our zoos?
When domestic cats get into the zoo, what do we worry about?
the cats pooping in the habitats and spreading toxoplasma
Are most of our zoo animals born in the zoo or brought in from other places?
born in the zoo
Why don't we import animals into the zoos instead of dealing with breeding?
importation is expensive and difficult
What does the SSP do?
controls breeding especially inbreeding
Describe how an animal should be in order to be bred?
- on a correct diet
Which animals do we hand raise often?
incubate bird and reptile eggs
Is mortality rate high in newborns?
Why is overproduction a problem?
some species are hard to place due to their size
What are some birth control methods in the zoo?
- keep sexes apart
- castrate males
- OVH females
- hormone implants in females
- birth control drugs
Why are zoos reluctant to castrate males?
because it can cause deformities in the animal...lions lose their mane, antelope's antlers grow in funny
What do hormone implants do?
stops females from cycling
Which animals are birth control drugs used in and what is the disadvantage to this method?
- have to get the medicine in them everyday
What does the vaccine do for birth control?
- makes the egg not allow for sperm to penetrate
- must be boostered yearly
Which type of restraint is preferred, manual or chemical? Why?
- because chemical restraint can be a risk to the patient
What are some problems seen with restraint?
- death (underlying problems or acute stress)
- capture myopathy
- muscle necrosis
- aspiration pneumonia
What is capture myopathy?
animal muscles overwork and start to break down then they get lacticosis and die due to being chased
How do animals get muscle necrosis due to being restrained?
from laying on muscles for too long due to chemical restraint
Are oral drugs used for chemical restraint?
Can we use a mask or chamber to gas a patient down?
yes, then intubate or use a mask to maintain
How long do we need to monitor a patient while under anesthesia?
until they are awake
What is the remote delivery system?
inject drugs without touching patient
What are some things that are used for the remote delivery system?
- pole syringe
- blow gun
- dart gun
Between using a blow gun or a dart gun, which method is preferred?
What distances is a blow gun used for?
What do you blow the dart through for a blow gun?
Are blow guns expensive or inexpensive?
Are blow guns loud or quiet?
What do we need to take into consideration when using a blow gun?
be careful of the wind because it can change the direction of your dart
Do blow guns cause lots of trauma?
no, minimal trauma
How does a dart gun work?
propels dart from pistol or rifel
What does a dart gun use to propel the dart from a dart gun?
uses gas from 0.22 blank or compressed CO2 or air
Are dart guns loud or quiet?
vary in noise, power, and range
What are some brands of dart guns?
- Zoolu Arms
Which muscles should we use when we are shooting the patient with a dart?
use heavy muscles of rump/shoulder
What do we need to be careful about when we are shooting an animal in the shoulder with a dart?
be careful because the heart is behind the shoulder
What could happen if a dart hits an animals bone?
could break the bone
What could happen if the dart is not loaded correctly?
the dart will not fire or it will blow up
What are the different parts of the dart?
- syringe barrel
- delivery media (charge)
- tail piece
Why should we give an animal antibiotics after shooting it with a dart?
because the dart is not sterile
Why do we need to fill the syringe all the way before using it in a dart?
because if there is air in the syringe then it will get into the animal
How do we prepare the dart?
- add drug first
- cover hole in needle
- add air
- attach tail piece
- load into pipe or gun
- attach pistol
- pressurize pistol
- beware shooting prematurely
Should we use our hand to check to make sure the animal is out after shooting it with a dart?
no, use a stick or something with a long handle
What types of drugs can we use to sedate an animal?
- ketamine combinations (ketace, ketxyl)
- midazolam, diazepam
What are the two narcotics that we use for zoo animals?
What is the trade name for carfentanil?
What is the trade name for etorphine?
What is the reverser for carfentanil?
What is the reverser for etorphine?
Which animals do we use narcotics on?
- pacadern - thick skinned animals like hippos, elephants, rhinos
Should we use narcotics on primates?
What happens to an animal if we use narctoics by themselves? What do we usually mix them with?
- can cause an animals limbs to be stiff
- mix with tranquilizer like ace
What is a common side affect of narcotics?
When can an animal get excited when using narcotics?
if they are underdosed
What is the benefit to using narcotics?
animal will still be able to walk and we can cover their eyes and lead them to where you need them to go
Which inhalants can we use for zoo animals?
What kind of breathing system or flow rates do we use for zoo animals?
same as for dogs
What do we need to monitor when a zoo animal is under anesthesia?
What kind of ventilating should we do for zoo animals?
- IPPR: intermittent positive pressure ventilation
- PPR: positive pressure ventilation
How do we diagnose a disease?
- physical exam
- diagnostic aids
What kind of diagnostics aids do we use to diagnose a disease?
- blood work
What are some common medical problems with zoo animals?
- trauma (cage mates, predators, exhibit)
- infections agents (example - bacteria)
- degenerative conditions
Is aggression common in zoo animals?
What are the two types of aggression seen in zoo animals?
- intraspecific due to hierarchy breakdown or unsocial species
- interspecific between different species
Is aggressive behavior predictable in the zoo?
What kinds of vaccination programs are used in the zoo?
- feline vaccine in wild cats
- EEE in storks and penguins
- WNV in avain species
What does EEE stand for?
eastern equine encephalomyolitis
What does WNV stand for?
west nile virus
What vaccines could cause a problem?
MLV (modified live vaccine)
Which animals should we vaccinate for canine distemper?
What is lumpy jaw and what causes it?
- bacterial disease of bone
- caused from eating hay with a lot of stems and sticks that penetrate the mucous membranes
Where do zoo animals get rabies?
from wild/feral species that get into the zoos
What area is rabies the most problem?
What are some of the main diseases we see in the zoo?
- feline leukemia
- feline herpes
- larval migrans
- west nile virus
What are the different types of surgery we see in the zoo?
- fracture repair
- wound treatment
- mass removal
What kind of research is done in the zoo?
Why do we prefer mother reared animals in the zoo?
behavior is more normal
Do we know when the females are pregnant in the zoo?
Is dystocia common?
yes, very common
What do inexperienced females often do to there neonates?